Kelly 281: JFK’s Secret Rothschild Society, SES Dum Dum Pig Farm Buck, Serco Con Air North Tower Hack

General John F. Kelly
White House Chief of Staff
Washington, D.C. 20528

Open letter from the Cloud Centric Crime Scene Investigators of Abel Danger

May 24, 2018

Dear General Kelly:

Please accept Brief 281 from Field McConnell – United States Marine Corps whistle-blower and Global Operations Director of Abel Danger (AD) – wherein he and his research team at Abel Danger plan to help injured communities launch crowd-funded docudramas and class-action lawsuits where the plaintiff groups may have suffered wrongful deaths in events orchestrated by oath takers in an alleged secret-society conspiracy with the London and NYC agents of N M Rothschild & Sons Limited (investment banker for Serco, Queen Elizabeth II and U.S. President Donald Trump) which the late U.S. President John F. Kennedy seems to have referred to in his ‘Guerrillas by Night’ address to the American Newspaper Publishers Association at a Bureau of Advertising dinner held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City on 27 April 1961 and triggered the following sequence of events ….

November 22, 1963 – President Kennedy appear to have been shot in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, with a bullet apparently derived from the Dum Dum bullet patented in 1897 by Captain Bertie-Clay of the Indian ammunition works at the town of Dum Dum in India and allegedly refined by the late chemist and biologist Victor Rothschild, former Chairman of N M Rothschild & Sons Limited, as subsequently described in Darrel Rubin’s Biological active bullets, systems, and methods US9200877B1.

1983-2002 – Charter members of the U.S. Senior Executive Service (SES) including Oliver ‘Buck’, former (SES-6) FBI Director deputy in charge of Criminal Investigative, Counter-Terrorism and Counter-Intelligence activities and Field McConnell’s sister Kristine Marcy, former Senior Counsel for the U.S. Marshals Service, allegedly established a DOJ ‘Con Air’ SWAT team and murder for hire network using Serco‘s air traffic control staff and Jerome H. Lemelson’s Prisoner tracking and warning system and corresponding methods US6054928A to track SES oath takers at a B.C. pig farm where up to 100 predominantly-First Nations prostitutes were shot with derivatives of the Dum Dum bullet..

1988 – Kristine Marcy’s SES colleagues allegedly used Boeing’s Intervention flight management system to warn Oliver Buck Revell to pull his son and daughter-in-law off the tarmac just before Pan Am Flight 103 took off from London’s Heathrow airport at 18:25 hours on 21 December 1988 and used a derivative of the Ford Motor Company’s Radio beacon US1937876A to detonate a bomb shortly after the plane passed the Dean Cross beacon to deliver a body count of 243 passengers + 16 crew + 11 people on the ground in Lockerbie, Scotland just after 19:02:50.

April 3, 1996 – Kristine Marcy’s SES colleagues allegedly used Boeing’s Intervention flight management system to divert a modified United States Air Force Boeing CT-43A (Flight IFO-21) while on an official trade mission into a crash on approach to Dubrovnik, Croatia, and used a Con Air SWAT team to put a Dum Dum bullet into the head of United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown whose office was burgled the following day by the former Commerce Department general counsel, Ira Sockowitz, who allegedly transferred details of all the patented technologies needed to hack the enemies of JFK’s secret society and destroy its financial, military and legislative assets on 9/11, into the ultimate custody of SES officers of the U.S. Small Business Administration and accelerated loan guarantee (liquidation) program.

December 26, 1996 – SES associates apparently issued Taser International’s Hand-held stun gun for incapacitating a human target US6636412B2 to the Con Air SWAT team which delivered a ransom note signed S.B.T.C (Small Business Torture Club?) to John Benett Ramsey in his Boulder Colorado home asking for $118,000 (equal to his Christmas bonus from the Lockheed Martin board of directors) in return for the safe return of his already-dead and cruelly-tortured daughter, the late JonBenet Ramsey.

September 11, 2001 – SES associates apparently equipped a Con Air SWAT team with Lockheed Martin’s Rocket-Boosted Guided Hard Target Penetrator US 6276277 B1 allegedly used to trigger 9/11 death pool betting with Howard Lutnick’s Real-time interactive wagering on event outcomes CA 2460367 A by Rothschild clients and Serco shareholders on the 47th Floor of the WTC North Tower.

September 11, 2001 – SES associates apparently equipped a Con Air SWAT team for ambush demolitions of WTC1 & 2 with Motorola’s Dynamic encryption key selection for encrypted radio transmissions US5222137A which was allegedly used in continuation frauds by Serco and QinetiQ operatives of the USPTO and the U.K. MoD’s privatized laboratories to hack a multichannel device held by the late FDNY Chief of Department Peter James Ganci Jr.; ignite WTC elevator-shaft incendiaries embedded in Arconic’s Double sheet aluminum panel .. US 20160096343 A1 with Qinetiq Explosive Device US20060243151A1 and kill 343 members of the Fire Department of New York.

March and July 2014 – SES associates apparently equipped Con Air SWAT teams with Boeing’s Encryption for asymmetric data links US7023996B2 to execute and conceal the alleged skyjacking of the Boeing 777-200ER of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370/MAS370) on the morning of 8 March 2014 while flying from Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia, to Beijing Capital International Airport in China and the alleged skyjacking of the Boeing 777-200ER of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (MH17/MAS17) while flying a scheduled passenger flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur on 17 July 2014 about 50 km (31 mi) from the Ukraine–Russia border to crash near Hrabove in Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine, 40 km (25 mi) from the border.

AD believes that Serco hired Oliver Buck Revell to work with the UK’s National Crime Squad (NCS) to set up and silence witnesses who can be blackmailed with the US Air Force’s Autonomous face recognition machine US5012522A and manipulated with QinetiQ North America Inc’s Social Engineering Protection Appliance US9123027B2 to filter physical truth (actus reus) from crime scene investigations and “Fakebook” profiles which might otherwise expose the leaders of President Kennedy’s secret society and their roles in the Con Air SWAT team murders of Vince Foster, former Deputy White House Counsel on July 29, 1993, John O’Neill, former head of security at the World Trade Center on 9/11 and at least 168 people including 19 children with the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995.

AD believes that Rothschild agents (Wilbur Ross?) ordered Kristine “Con Air” Marcy to send the alleged Murrah bomber and Con Air SWAT team leader, Timothy McVeigh, to be executed by lethal injection – perhaps using penetrator technology described in China’s Injection death execution vehicle CN2519750Y – on June 11, 2001 at the Federal Correctional Complex in Terre Haute, Indiana and ensure there was one less prospective whistleblower for producers of the first live-broadcast mass snuff film planned for 9/11.

With this the 281st Kelly public briefing, we have shown why the Trump Administration must purge associates of N M Rothschild & Sons Ltd, Serco shareholders and the U.S. Senior Executive Service from contracts with America particularly those related to the deployment of Con Air SWAT teams to extort silence or consent from patentees and/or witnesses to what are, in essence, RICO body-count dead-pool missions which expose Serco‘s shareholders and banks to massive claims for wrongful deaths.

Abel Danger will help leaders of injured communities to develop crowd-funded film productions and law suits so that while claims for damages for wrongful deaths appear in the online courts of public opinion, scripts for physical acts causing deaths (actus reus) associated with the negligent, reckless, wilful, fraudulent or concealed use of patented devices and spoliation of evidence, can be published on the AD website without attempting to prove mental intent to murder (mens rea).

The missile that hit WTC 2 in Slow Motion

9/11 Firemen claiming they heard explosions

Media Coverage of Starnet Raid – August 20, 1999


SERCO GROUP PLC: List of Subsidiaries AND Shareholders! [Note representatives of Serco‘s private-equity groups, Serco‘s investment banker N M Rothschild (Wilbur Ross?) and Serco shareholders, including the British and Saudi Arabian governments, AXA (Co-developer of and with a presumed virtual office in the Trump Tower), Allianz, 10 Global Custodians with $100 trillion under management and the TIAA pension fund met in a junket (wagering) room on the 47th Floor of North Tower (WTC1) on 9/11!]

Yours sincerely,


Field McConnell
USMC 0116513
P O Box 39
Plum City WI 54761″


“Digital Fires Instructor Serco[Marine Corps Base!] Camp Pendleton, CA Uses information derived from all military disciplines (e.g., aviation, ground combat, command and control, combat service support, intelligence, and opposing forces) to determine changes in enemy capabilities, vulnerabilities, and probable courses of action.”

“On April 3, 1996, a United States Air Force Boeing CT-43A (Flight IFO-21) crashed on approach to Dubrovnik, Croatia, while on an official trade mission. The aircraft, a Boeing 737-200 originally built as T-43A navigational trainer and later converted into a CT-43A executive transport aircraft, was carrying United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown and 34 other people, including The New York Times Frankfurt bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash.[2] While attempting an instrument approach to Dubrovnik Airport, the airplane crashed into a mountainside. Air Force Technical Sergeant Shelly Kelly survived the initial impact, but died en route to the hospital. Everyone else on board died at the scene of the crash.[3]”

“Clinton Fund-raising, Ties To Chinese Questionable
March 30, 1999
We must deal with the Chinese, their spies, contributions to the Clinton/Gore political campaign, and the White House

“spin doctors.”

Last week it was a spy working in our Los Alamos missile systems. He has been fired for leaks of top-secret information, but he hasn’t been arrested. The White House has said that the Chinese may now have military technology aided by a U.S. spy, not to mention leaks by the administration, nor the release of high-tech computers to the Chinese since early in 1996.

The Clinton team is saying the blame should be laid strictly at the feet of the Reagan/Bush presidencies, strange since Clinton has been in office for six years. All the more strange, since they admit knowing of this spy for past three years. Also, leaks from their own Cabinet-level employees have been well-documented. For instance, the Commerce Department removed classified files from the State Department that contained information on our missile programs and encryption codes. During June 1992, as reported by Investors Business Daily, Ira Sockowitz, the Commerce Department general counsel, took 2,800 pages of classified State Department files. The Commerce Department was not cleared to handle this information. It is not known how these files were used. What is known, the Commerce Department was closely tied to Clinton’s fund-raising and offered aid to the Chinese to correct their failed satellite launching program.

Later, Sockowitz was transferred to the Small Business Administration; he again, without authorization, removed files. He stated they were needed at the SBA, but the SBA denied this.

Sockowitz was the self-proclaimed “advance person” for the 1992 Clinton/Gore campaign funding.”

“Judicial Watch Interim Report on Crimes and Other Offenses Committed by President Bill Clinton Warranting His Impeachment and Removal from Elected Office

Judicial Watch, Inc. Larry Klayman, Chairman and General Counsel, Thomas Fitton, President, Judicial Watch, Inc.

501 School Street, S.W. Suite 725
Washington, DC 20024
(202) 646-5172 (202) 646-5199 (fax)

Unknown to the public, in 1993 the Clinton White House obtained the FBI files of Billy Dale, the former head of the White House Travel Office, and Barney Brasseux, a White House Travel Office employee.(18) Apparently, these FBI files were obtained by the Clinton White House shortly after Mr. Dale, a twenty-year veteran of the White House Travel Office, Mr. Brasseux, and several other employees of the White House Travel Office were fired by the Clinton White House to allow their replacement with personal friends of the President and Hillary Rodham Clinton. Mr. Dale was subsequently indicted on trumped-up charges of fraud. Later, Mr. Dale was completely exonerated of any wrong-doing. He even received an award of attorneys’ fees for having to defend himself against the baseless charges brought against him. It is likely that the reason for indicting Mr. Dale was to avoid the appearance that he was fired simply to allow the Clintons to bring their personal friends into the White House Travel Office. It is also likely that the reason Mr. Dale’s and Mr. Brasseux’s FBI files were obtained was to try to find damaging information about them to avoid the appearance of political cronyism in firing them. … Even more troubling than the revelations about the unlawful sale of seats on Commerce Department trade missions in exchange for campaign contributions, and the criminal cover-up that followed,(142) is evidence of likely national security breaches also uncovered by Judicial Watch’s investigation. From the beginning of Judicial Watch’s investigation, national security issues always were a concern. In fact, Bernard Schwartz of Loral Space and Communications Corporation (“Loral”), a major Clinton donor who had participated in a key 1994 trade mission to China and was quoted in the Business Week and The Wall Street Journal articles that helped pique Judicial Watch’s interest in the trade missions, now stands at the heart of a scandal over Clinton Commerce Department-approved missile technology transfers to China. Documents relating to Schwartz, Loral, and other entities involved in the current China technology transfer scandal were among those requested by Judicial Watch in its first FOIA request to the Clinton Commerce Department. Schwartz went on this key trade mission to China with Secretary Brown shortly after making a $100,000 contribution to the DNC. During the trade mission, Secretary Brown set up an important meeting for Schwartz with a Chinese government official that later led to the missile deals that are now the subject of various national security investigations.

In addition, Judicial Watch also uncovered the removal by Ira Sockowitz, an official at the Clinton Commerce Department and confidante of alleged Chinese agent John Huang, of top secret documents relating to satellite encryption and intelligence reports on China, Russia and India. These documents have since been impounded by Court order. Other documents, which have been withheld by the Clinton Commerce Department, indicate that Ron Brown’s Chief of Staff at the Clinton Commerce Department, William Ginsburg, kept allegedly personal diaries detailing “state secrets,” including information on satellite surveillance, intelligence personnel and capabilities, notes of a meeting of the National Security Council, among other “national security” information.(143) He too removed documents from the Department when he left its employ.”:

“About Lynn Forester de Rothschild
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Lynn Forester, Lady de Rothschild (b. July 2, 1954 in New Jersey, U.S.)[1] is the chief executive officer of E.L. Rothschild, a holding company she owns with her third husband, Sir Evelyn Robert de Rothschild, a member of the Rothschild family.[1] The company manages investments in the British business magazine The Economist and various enterprises in India.[2] By virtue of her marriage to a knight, she is known socially as Lady de Rothschild.


Raised in Oradell, New Jersey and daughter of John Kenneth Forester, president and owner of the General Aviation Company, now Meridian in Teterboro, N.J., she is a Phi Beta Kappa Magna Cum Laude graduate of Pomona College and an honors graduate of Columbia Law School. She also studied international law at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. From 1980-1984, she was an associate at the Simpson Thacher & Bartlett law firm.

Forester has stated that her first business success came at the age of 16 when she bought US made blue jeans and brought them to sell in Israel during her vacation there and sold them for up to ten times what they had originally cost her.[citation needed]

After meeting telecommunications billionaire John Kluge while doing legal work for him as a law firm associate, she became Executive Vice President for Development at Metromedia Inc from 1984-1989. Later, she became an entrepreneur in telecommunications and she acquired a personal fortune of over a hundred million dollars in the economic boom years between 1989 and 1998. She started with a 60% interest in TPI Communications Inc, a Puerto Rico based paging and cellular reselling business which was partly owned and financed by Motorola and managed by Forester. Before being sold, the company tripled its revenue and its cash flow grew to three times the US average. TPI was sold in a private transaction for an undisclosed sum in the mid-90s. In 1995, Forester formed FirstMark Communications Inc and received the first fixed wireless broadband licences for New York City, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Boston. She sold this company for an undisclosed sum in 1997. In 1998, Forester founded the Luxembourg-based wireless broadband venture FirstMark Communications Europe, which acquired fixed broadband licences for Germany, Spain, France, Switzerland, Luxembourg and Finland and built a 20,000 km fiber network through-out continental Europe. Boasted on its Board of Directors Nathan Myhrvold of Microsoft, Washington D.C. power broker Vernon Jordan and Henry Kissinger. The company was sold in June 2000 in a $1 billion financing, the largest private equity placement in the history of the European competitive telecommunications sector. In discussing her personal business success between 1989 and 2000, Forester has said: “I think a lot of it is that I was lucky…most of all I learned that it’s better to be lucky than to be smart.”

Lady de Rothschild is also on the Board of Directors of Estée Lauder Companies and The Economist Group.

Personal life

Forester’s first marriage, to Alexander Hartley Platt, a doctor’s son from New Jersey, took place at Brick Presbyterian Church on May 20, 1978.[3]

Her second husband was [4] Andrew Stein, a New York politician and son of a multi-millionaire businessman, Jerry Finklestein. Stein is nine years older than Forester and was Manhattan Borough President at the time of their marriage. They wed on March 12, 1983,[5] and had two children, Ben and Jake. They were divorced in 1993.[6]

Forester was introduced to Sir Evelyn de Rothschild by Henry Kissinger at the 1998 Bilderberg Group conference in Scotland,[7] and they married on November 30, 2000 in London, England, after Rothschild (born into the fabulously wealthy European banking family and almost 23 years older than Forester) had left his wife and three children.[1] She is his third wife.[1] On the announcement of the marriage, the de Rothschild couple were invited to spend their honeymoon at the White House.[8] The couple splits their time between New York and London. In response to a reporter’s question about her wealth, Forester said, “Is that said about me? I hope not. I mean, I’m just who I am. I don’t think being rich is that important. I think not being boring is really important.”

[edit] Politics

Lady de Rothschild was a major fund raiser for Hillary Rodham Clinton’s 2008 Presidential bid and has received attention for endorsing John McCain for President. She has stepped down as a member of the Democratic National Committee platform committee.”

“Papers of John F. Kennedy. Presidential Papers. President’s Office Files. Speech Files. Address: “The President and the Press,” Bureau of Advertising, American Newspaper Publishers Association, 27 April 1961 … Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen: …. The very word “secrecy” is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings. … Today no war has been declared–and however fierce the struggle may be, it may never be declared in the traditional fashion. Our way of life is under attack. Those who make themselves our enemy are advancing around the globe. .. It requires a change in outlook, a change in tactics, a change in missions–by the government, by the people, by every businessman or labor leader, and by every newspaper. For we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence–on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day. It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations. Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined. Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed. It conducts the Cold War, in short, with a war-time discipline no democracy would ever hope or wish to match.

Nevertheless, every democracy recognizes the necessary restraints of national security-and the question remains whether those restraints need to be more strictly observed if we are to oppose this kind of attack as well as outright invasion.

For the facts of the matter are that this nation’s foes have openly boasted of acquiring through our newspapers information they would otherwise hire agents to acquire through theft, bribery or espionage; that details of this nation’s covert preparations to counter the enemy’s covert operations have been available to every newspaper reader, friend and foe alike; that the size, the strength, the location and the nature of our forces and weapons, and our plans and strategy for their use, have all been pinpointed in the press and other news media to a degree sufficient to satisfy any foreign power; and that, in at least one case, the publication of details concerning a secret mechanism whereby satellites were followed required its alteration at the expense of considerable time and money. … I have no intention of establishing a new Office of War Information to govern the flow of news. .. It is the unprecedented nature of this challenge that also gives rise to your second obligation–an obligation which I share. And that is our obligation to inform and alert the American people–to make certain that they possess all the facts that they need, and understand them as well–the perils, the prospects, the purposes of our program and the choices that we face…. Without debate, without criticism, no Administration and no country can succeed-and no republic can survive. That is why the Athenian law-maker Solon decreed it a crime for any citizen to shrink from controversy. And that is why our press was protected by the First Amendment–the only business in America specifically protected by the Constitution–not primarily to amuse and entertain, not to emphasize the trivial and the sentimental, not to simply “give the public what it wants”–but to inform, to arouse, to reflect, to state our dangers and our opportunities, to indicate our crises and our choices, to lead, mold, educate and sometimes even anger public opinion. This means greater coverage and analysis of international news–for it is no longer far away and foreign but close at hand and local. It means greater attention to improved understanding of the news as well as improved transmission. And it means, finally, that government at all levels, must meet its obligation to provide you with the fullest possible information outside the narrowest limits of national security–and we intend to do. … It was early in the Seventeenth Century that Francis Bacon remarked on three recent inventions already transforming the world: the compass, gunpowder and the printing press. Now the links between the nations first forged by the compass have made us all citizens of the world, the hopes and threats of one becoming the hopes and threats of us all. In that one world’s efforts to live together, the evolution of gunpowder to its ultimate limit has warned mankind of the terrible consequences of failure. And so it is to the printing press–to the recorder of man’s deeds, the keeper of his conscience, the courier of his news–that we look for strength and assistance, confident that with your help man will be what he was born to be: free and independent.

Note: The President spoke at the annual dinner of the Association’s Bureau of Advertising held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City.”

“The gunshot wound to the head

Diagram made for the House Committee showing the trajectory of the bullet through President Kennedy’s skull. The rear wound corresponds with the small entry wound above. The skull fragments are shown exploded for illustrative purposes; most stayed attached to the skull by skin flaps, which are being pulled forward by the gloved hand in the drawing made from an autopsy photo.

The wound to the back of the head is described by the Bethesda autopsy as being a laceration measuring 15 by 6 millimetres (0.59 in × 0.24 in), situated to the right and slightly above the external occipital protuberance. In the underlying bone is a corresponding wound through the skull showing beveling (a cone-shaped widening) of the margins of the bone when viewed from the interior of the skull.[11]

The large, irregularly shaped defect in the right side of the head (chiefly to the parietal bone, but also involving the temporal and occipital bone) is described as being about 13 centimetres (5.1 in) wide at the largest diameter.[11]

Three fragments of skull bone were received as separate specimens, roughly corresponding to the dimensions of the large defect. In the largest of the fragments is a portion of the perimeter of a roughly circular wound presumably of exit, exhibiting beveling of the exterior of the bone, and measuring about 2.5 to 3.0 centimetres (0.98 to 1.18 in). X-rays revealed minute particles of metal in the bone at this margin.[11]

Minute fragments of the projectile were found by X-ray along a path from the rear wound to the parietal area defect.[12]

In 2013 Dr. Robert McClelland, who was attending the wounded President in the Parkland Hospital Trauma Room, stated “I was about 18 inches above that wound. I got a better look at it than anybody in that room. It was way back in the back (of the head), which may lead to the thought that he was shot not only from the back, but also from the front,” McClelland said.

“In other words, there was more than one gunman, and therefore a conspiracy of some sort. And I looked into that wound for a long time, and there is no doubt what I saw,” he said.[13]”

Serco Processes 2 Millionth Patent Application for U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
March 19, 2013 RESTON, VIRGINIA – March 18, 2013 – Serco Inc., a leading provider of professional, technology, and management services to the federal government, announced today that their Pre-Grant Publication (PGPubs) Classification Services team recently processed their 2 millionth patent application for the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO). Each application was also processed within the contractually required 28-day window.”

“Boeing Co Encryption for asymmetric data links US7023996B2 Abstract A method is provided for asymmetrically encrypting data communicated between a ground platform and multiple airborne platforms. The method includes packet encrypting ground-based data so as to preserve routing information while encrypting the remaining data. The packet-encrypted data is then transmitted to the airborne platforms. The method also includes bulk encrypting airborne-based data so as to maximize security. The bulk-encrypted data is then transmitted to the ground platform.”

“Expanding bullets a ‘moral issue’
2001-03-16 10:55
by Deirdre Snook
The Anglo-Boer War offered the first opportunity for the large-scale use of modern small arms. The large, soft, leaden bullet of previous wars was replaced by the small calibre, ogival-shaped, nickel-jacketed projectile. Because the cartridges were smaller and lighter, more of them could be fired per unit time, which increased the number of wounded.

The 7mm Model 96 Mauser – generally used by the Boers – and the British army service rifle, the .303-inch Lee-Enfield, fired bullets similar in shape; the latter having a slightly greater mass, the former having a higher velocity. As wounding results from the release of kinetic energy, it is obvious that both these bullets had more or less the same effect.

Professor JC de Villiers – The modern rifle bullet” – says the destructive effect of a bullet on tissue is related to the resistance which it offers to the bullet`s flight. Any irregularity of the bullet would cause more energy to be expended in the tissues thereby resulting in greater damage. The new, non-expanding bullets, sometimes caused little tissue damage. At an average velocity – when fired from a fairly long distance – these bullets were found to produce clear-cut entrance and exit wounds of almost equal size.

At short range, however, when their velocity was still very high and their effect – particularly on a closed cavity such as the skull or a solid organ – could be explosive. Increasing experience showed that the distance from which the bullet was fired was extremely important.

There were instances of lung and abdomen wounds, where the patient had hardly any reaction; He concludes that: Many of the stories on expanding bullets might have been unfounded as ricochet bullets or the effect of bone being struck and shattering could cause massive wounds.”

The dum-dum bullet was developed by the British military and patented in 1897 by Captain Bertie-Clay of the Indian ammunition works at the town of Dum Dum in India.

General Sir Henry Backenbury describes its origins: “Owing to the experience of the Chitral campaign in 1895, it was considered desirable that we should have a more deadly bullet than the ordinary Mark II. It had insufficient stopping power over the rush of Ghazis and accordingly in this country, as well as in India, an effort was made to find a satisfactory bullet, which would have a more deadly effect.

In India, they produced the Dum-Dum ammunition, in which the head of the bullet is not covered by the nickel envelope. In England, the bullet had a small cylindrical hole in the lead at the top, which was not covered over with nickel. This was the Mark IV, an expanding bullet.”

In 1899 Britain had a stock of 172 000 000 expanding bullets, of which 66 000 000 had been delivered to British bases worldwide.”

The Mark IV soft expanding bullet disintegrated when it entered a man’s body. It mushroomed on impact causing terrible wounds and was thought to be too vicious to inflict upon one another. Boer War expert Thomas Pakenham says Britain accepted that, for a white man’s war”, it had certain moral force” (251). It had previously been used on India’s North West Frontier and in the Sudan in 1897.

The Laws of war at the Hague Convention of 29th July 1899 is contained in the Declaration on the use of bullets. The Contracting parties agree to abstain from the use of bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core, or is pierced with incisions.” However, since neither the Boers nor the British had not been signatories, they were not bound by the convention.

Dum-Dum is often misused to mean any softûnosed or hollow-pointed hunting bullet.

Expanding rounds were only effective in higher velocity firearms, made after 1850. Some Boers used their own guns and occasionally British-made Kynoch soft-nosed hunting ammunition was used, in spite of the boxes being marked as For use against game animals only.” Soft-nosed Mauser ammunition was also found in use. Further confusion arose as some bullets labelled Dum-Dum” had been made at the British arms factory at Dum-Dum, India, while others were the expanding bullets.

Experienced soldiers soon learnt that by rubbing away the nickel jacket at the tip, the desired effect could be obtained. This was done on a small scale on both sides, but the bullets were found to have a tumbling effect.

Emotive allegations and counter allegations followed by both sides. At Green Hill, February 1900, the British reported that Of the ammunition captured, a great quantity was found to be loaded with expanding bullets of Dum-Dum pattern, soft-nosed or split-nosed, the employment of which is contrary to the conventions of civilised war.”

At Belmont (Nov 1899) Lord Methuen addressed a dignified letter of protest to the Boer Commander after some of his men were wounded with Dum-Dum or expansive bullets. He went on to describe the dastardly” conduct of Boers in firing on ambulance wagons.

In March 1900 the Brits complained that The Boers are casting aside all rules of civilised warfare. Soft-nosed bullets which double up in the wound instead of going straight through are being used”.

The Boers countered with reports of their own.

At Kraaipan, General Piet Cronje wired the following to Pretoria; Dum-Dum bullets were found on the enemy.”

In December 1899, outside Mafeking, General Snyman told Pretoria cartridges taken from the enemy during this morning’s battle were Dum-Dum bullets.”

When General Erasmus took possession of Dundee after Talana, the British had retreated leaving their stores behind, and he reported that he had found huge quantities of Mark IV expanding bullets.”

An archived copy of General Botha’s own report on the Battle of Colenso, (dated 19th December 1899), to Commandant-General Piet Joubert survives.

It says; It was in this sector of the battlefield that the terms of the Geneva Convention were violated repeatedly by the English Red Cross, so that I was later compelled to bring this to the attention of the enemy’s commanding officer. The enemy used lyddite and dum-dum bullets in this battle.”

The Royal Commission on the war had the task, among other things, to evaluate Britain’s preparedness. On October 21, 1902, General Sir Henry Backenbury told the inquiry in London: The Mark IV was an expanding bullet. We had every intention of using it as about 66 000 000 of it had been delivered worldwide up to March 31, 1899. We had an exceptionally hot summer in July 1899. It was found that, especially in the hands of the volunteers, where the rifles were not kept particularly clean, there were several instances in which this bullet stripped. That is to say that the lead of the bullet squirted out thought this opening in the top of the nickel envelope and left the envelope behind in the rifle.

The two conditions of great heat and dirty rifles were likely to occur in the (Boer) war, and so it was advised not to use these bullets.”

However, cases of Mark IV bullets had already been shipped to Ladysmith, the British depot from 1896.” Were all the delivered cases withdrawn between July (start of summer) and October 1899 (start of the war)?

The use of dum-dums caused so much outrage from both sides that any enemy captured with them in his possession could be summarily shot.

On November 6, 1900, Major Hickie was holed up in a farmhouse at Bothaville and the Boers were using explosive (hollow-nosed or soft-nosed) bullets, which smashed to pieces the walls of the farmhouse above his head. The Boers surrendered when reinforcements arrived and Hickie said Our men were wild as nearly all our casualties were from explosive bullets.

I had all the prisoners searched for explosives and found two with them in their pockets. These I ordered to be shot in half an hour.

Unfortunately, I met the general (Knox) and told him û he said All right, I leave it up to you.” Ten minutes afterwards, he sent to me that he would have them tried first. Results that now we have cooled down, we won’t shoot a man in cold blood.”

The irony is that the Dum-Dums, which had their origins in another British conflict, caused so much controversy when used against them.”

“Can an XP-100 (Normally used with .221 Fireball ammo) using .222 and filled with mercury have a devastating effect on a human head/skull…

This shot was fired in the early 60s…. the shooter is claimed to have made the right front head shot on JFK…. in slow motion I’ve watched the Zapruder Film and the bullet that hits JFK’s right front temple seems to explode and fragment on impact doing extensive damage… I just can see a .222 cartridge doing that…

I owned one of the first XP-100’s released in the early 60s…. and ammo like that would have only been available to CIA (and those who made their ammo) in any calibler….”

The HSCA Forensic Pathology Panel’s Misrepresentation of the Kennedy Assassination Medical Evidence
by John Hunt
The House Select Committee on Assassinations’ (HSCA) Forensic Pathology Panel (FPP) sought to identify and locate as precisely as possible any exit wounds on John Kennedy’s head, including that of the bullet it determined entered the rear of the President’s head. To accomplish that, the FPP utilized the only hard evidence available to it—the X-rays and photographs taken during Kennedy’s autopsy. Mysteriously, the President’s brain and the tissue slides of the wound margins prepared after the autopsy (which had been preserved for further study) have disappeared. The only organic matter from JFK’s body remaining in evidence today is the dried blood in the fabric of the clothing he wore that day, and possibly the human skin and tissue associated with CE-567.[1]

The X-rays – Four radiologists were consulted by the FPP over a six-month period beginning in February 1978.[2] None reported an identifiable exit point.[3] The closest an HSCA radiology consultant came to claiming to identify an outshoot point was Dr. David Davis, who reported:

It seems apparent that explosive impact occurred in this calvarium. It also seemsreasonable to assume that the exit point is near the coronal suture on the right side, about 5 or 6, or perhaps slightly more, cm above the pterion. (7HSCA224) [emphasis added]

Why it “seem[ed] reasonable” to Davis “to assume that the exit point” was anywhere is left entirely to the imagination of the reader, for Davis never explained the rationale upon which he based his assumption. Davis’ unsupported and equivocal speculation notwithstanding, the X-rays did not reveal any outshoot points. That left the FPP with only the photographs to make their determination.”

“History – National Prisoner Transportation System
On August 20, 1985, the U.S. Marshals Service acquired its first Boeing 727 used for prisoner transportation. The Marshals Service operated the National Prisoner Transportation System, one of the largest transporters of prisoners in the world.”

“”Con-Air” in 1/6 San Diego Union Tribune [news article]
From: (Glenn Campbell, Las Vegas)
Date: Tue, 7 Jan 1997 10:37:42 -0800
Subject: “Con-Air” in 1/6 San Diego Union Tribune [news article]

A correspondent passed this 1/6 article on to us. He adds:

“The article in the hard-copy paper has a couple of pictures to go with the story (no pix on-line). One picture shows the shoulder patch on the aircrew uniforms, another shows prisoners lined up about to board a Convair 580. The paint job on the plane looked like INS or maybe US Marshals Service, it was a green stripe with an eagle forward of the door.”


(Password required)

The article is relevant here because of recent discussion of Con-Air flights using the “Janet” company name.


You won’t need a reservation on this airline — no matter how many travelers flood the airport.

Don’t worry about traffic or parking. Shuttles are provided. And the price is right — you fly for free.

But think carefully before you step aboard. This is ConAir, and all the passengers are federal prisoners.

“We don’t serve mixed drinks,” said Thomas Little, chief of air operations for the program, officially titled the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System, or J-Pats.

Call it ConAir and Little knows what you mean. It’s the name the air transport system has picked up inside the U.S. Marshals Service, which flies a fleet of 13 airplanes on regular routes across the country every day.

During the past year, the prisoner airline spent $24 million moving more than 100,000 federal inmates — including 12,000 from San Diego — to and from trials, prisons and medical centers nationwide.

The inmates fly mostly on 727s and DC-9s. But the airline, which has merged with the air wing of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, also operates Convair 580s, a Lear jet and a number of smaller aircraft.

Among the most infamous of its recent travelers were Unabomber suspect Theodore Kaczynski and the men accused in the bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building, Terry Nichols and Timothy McVeigh.

Nichols and McVeigh were transported in the dead of night in an operation much akin to a clandestine military operation, Little said. He did not want to go into details but mentioned that a decoy plane was among the ploys used to guard against possible attempts by supporters to free the suspects.

Federal officials have always been circumspect about the fine points of prisoner movement. But ConAir soon could gain a higher public profile with the planned release in June of a movie by the same name.

In the Disney film, Nicolas Cage plays a hapless prisoner who wanders into a hijack plot aboard a Marshals Service plane carrying a group of high-security inmates.

The Hollywood marshals rough up some of the prisoners, and the plane crashes, leaving the real Marshals Service frowning on the silver screen’s invention, said Kristine Marcy, a top official in charge of detentions.

“We don’t beat up our prisoners, and our planes certainly don’t crash,” Marcy said on a recent trip to San Diego, where she was trying to find more jail space for federal prisoners.

The space problem here is acute because of the high number of border arrests. So, San Diego is a regular stop on ConAir’s West Coast air route, with 12 flights per week scheduled into Lindbergh Field.

Prisoners — mostly people being held for entering the country with false documents — are flown from San Diego to Las Vegas, where they are housed in the city jail. They are flown back a few days later for deportation hearings.

Without the air transportation system, Operation Gatekeeper, the federal border crackdown, would not have been possible, said Mark Reed, San Diego’s district director for the INS.

Before ConAir was called in last July, Reed said, the INS was spending hours on the road busing hundreds of prisoners to Las Vegas, the closest jail space available.

Kim Porter, who coordinates INS air transportation in San Diego, estimated that 12,000 inmates have flown from here to Las Vegas and back aboard federal planes.

“If the planes stopped flying for just one day, a monkey wrench would be thrown into the whole system,” Porter said.

Because of the San Diego jail space problem, there was no holiday break here for ConAir. While flights in other parts of the country were cut back during the Christmas season, San Diego continued its rigorous schedule of two flights every weekday and one each Saturday and Sunday.

Marcy said the air transportation system inspires a high level of commitment in its personnel.

“People are always willing to be on standby or to work overtime,” she said, noting that the planes are not always used for prisoner transport.

After a hurricane flattened parts of the Virgin Islands last year, the prisoner transportation system flew in some of the first reinforcements to help establish law and order, she said.

After the Oklahoma City bombing, the airline flew evidence to the FBI crime laboratory in Washington, D.C., she said.”

“Pickton convictions begin to unravel
by Andy Clark/Reuters
Supporters of women who have gone missing in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside rally outside a courthouse where Robert Pickton’s appeal is being heard.
Brian Hutchinson, National Post · Apr. 1, 2009 | Last Updated: Apr. 2, 2009 9:41 AM ET
It’s awful to contemplate, but Robert “Willie” Pickton’s six murder convictions could soon be overturned. Mistakes were made at the end of his 2007 trial, lawyers representing Pickton told a B.C. Court of Appeal panel this week.

But we already knew that. The trial judge admitted he had messed up in his instruction to jurors, and had taken steps to fix the problem before a verdict was reached. The question remains, did he make things worse?

Pickton’s long-anticipated appeal began this week in a downtown Vancouver courtroom. On Wednesday, a Crown attorney stood before the three appellate judges and acknowledged that prosecutors themselves had made an error near the trial’s ending with regards to the 2007 Pickton jury instruction. Albeit an error not in law, but in judgment.

Admissions such as these are what appeal court lawyers dream about. A judge actually admits to making an error during a trial. The Crown admits to some role in it. Lawyers for the convicted grab at these loose threads and start pulling, hoping the entire process might ultimately unravel. At issue before the appeal court panel are three paragraphs that Mr. Justice James Williams inserted late into his jury instructions, delivered in late November, 2007, at the Pickton trial.

Prior to reading his final instructions to the jury, the appeal court has heard, Judge Williams sought input from Crown and defence lawyers.

One of them, Pickton defence lawyer Adrian Brooks, asked the judge to instruct jurors that Pickton could not be found guilty of murdering three of his six alleged victims unless jurors determined that he had “pulled the trigger” on a firearm used to kill them.

Remains from the three victims indicated that they had been shot to death. Remains from the others were too fragmentary or too decomposed to indicate the same. Remarkably, Judge Williams agreed to the defence request. More surprising, lawyers prosecuting Pickton did not protest it. Their acquiescence was bizarre. The defence’s so-called actual shooter insertion seemed meant to dissuade the jury from considering that Pickton could have had a co-perpetrator, at least in three of the six murders.

Few trial observers seriously believed the simpleton pig farmer could have acted alone. And while the Crown never argued that Pickton had help killing his six victims — after all, there was no co-accused — it seemed to leave open the suggestion.”

“The Botched Ron Brown Investigation
An Interview with AFIP Forensic Photographer Kathleen Janoski
by Wesley Phelan
Former Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown died on April 3, 1996, in a plane crash near Dubrovnik, Croatia. Thirty- four persons accompanying Brown on the trade mission also died in the crash. Due to the efforts of Judicial Watch we now know beyond a reasonable doubt that seats on Brown’s Commerce Department trade missions were sold to raise funds for the Democratic National Committee and the 1996 Clinton/Gore Campaign. There is overwhelming evidence that Bill and Hillary Clinton knew of and approved this improper and illegal fundraising scheme [1].

Even more serious than the sale of public property for campaign contributions is the likelihood that transfers of American technology, approved and overseen by Ron Brown’s Commerce Department, breached national security. Bernard Schwartz, head of Loral Corporation and a major donor to the DNC, accompanied Brown on a 1994 trade mission to China. During this trade mission Brown set up a meeting between Schwartz and a Chinese government official. This meeting led to a transfer of American missile technology to the Chinese that is now the subject of a congressional investigation [2].

At the time of his death Ron Brown was under subpoena to produce documents relating to the sale of seats on trade missions to Judicial Watch for its suit against the Commerce Department. Nolanda Hill, a friend and business partner of Brown, testified under oath that Brown had shown her a collection of such documents in an ostrich skin portfolio. These documents were withheld from Judicial Watch in violation of the subpoena and a FOIA request. Just before his death Brown reportedly said of his mounting legal troubles, “I am too old to go to jail. If I go down, I’ll take everyone else down with me” [3].

The suspicious circumstances surrounding the crash of Brown’s plane have given rise to much speculation of foul play [4]. Making Brown’s death even more suspicious is the fact that a perfectly round .45 inch inwardly beveling hole was discovered in the top of his head as his body was being processed by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP). The story of the hole in Brown’s head broke on November 24, with a report by Christopher Ruddy in the Pittsburgh Tribune- Review. Ruddy reported that Lt. Col. Steve Cogswell, a deputy medical examiner with AFIP, questioned the official finding that Brown died of multiple blunt- force trauma as a result of the airplane crash. Cogswell, who did not personally examine Brown’s body, based his suspicions on x-rays and photographs of the top of Brown’s head. Also suspicious, according to Cogswell, was the fact that the original x-rays of Brown’s head showed possible metal fragments in the brain, consistent with a high-velocity gunshot wound. The two head x-rays are missing from Brown’s file and Cogswell suspects they were never placed in the file [5].

Hause, one of AFIP’s leading experts on gunshot wounds, was present in the room when Brown’s body was being examined. A commotion erupted when Chief Petty Officer Kathleen Janoski said “Wow, look at the hole in Ron Brown’s head.” Hause walked over and verified that the wound penetrated the skull, exposing brain matter. According to Hause, the wound “looked like a punched- out .45-caliber entrance hole.” After Hause spoke to Ruddy, the AFIP gag order was broadened to include all AFIP personnel.

On January 8, the Justice Department announced it had found no reason to launch an investigation into the case. The next day a story by Michael Fletcher appeared in the Washington Post. Fletcher reported that AFIP had convened a review panel of all its pathologists, including Cogswell and Hause. Fletcher said the panel came to the unanimous conclusion that Brown died of blunt-force trauma and that the hole in the top of Brown’s head was not a gunshot wound.

Unfortunately for Fletcher, his story misrepresented what happened in the review panel. What actually happened, according to Cogswell, is that he refused to participate in the review because he thought it would not be fair and unbiased. His lawyer concurred with his decision. In fact, most of those participating in the review were not board-certified in forensic pathology. Of those who were certified, none had significant interest or experience in gunshot wounds. All of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner’s forensic pathologists with any expertise in gunshot wounds (Cogswell, Hause, and Parsons) dissented from the “official” opinion [6].

On January 13, yet another member of AFIP joined the ranks of the dissenters. Kathleen Janoski, a 22-year Navy veteran, was the head of AFIP’s forensic photography unit. Janoski says she was told that missing evidence from the Brown file was purposely destroyed. Janoski originally declined to speak to the press about the matter, but finally came forward out of concern for the careers of Cogswell, Hause, and Parsons. She was stunned that the AFIP inquiry focused on the actions of the whistleblowers instead of on the botched examination of Brown’s body. Janoski says a naval criminal investigator told her the original x- rays of Brown’s head “showed a lead snowstorm.” Janoski then located photographs she had taken of the original x-rays and gave them to Cogswell to review. That is how the story began.”


Virtually the entire case for supposed suicide rests firmly on the autopsy done by Dr. James C. Beyer, a pathologist for Fairfax County, Virginia with strong ties to the FBI.

Dr. Bayer’s autopsy report at first reading seems unremarkable. It’s conclusion is that Vincent Foster died of a single gunshot wound entering the roof of the mouth and exiting the back of the skull.

But on closer examination, problems become apparent.

Dr. Beyer’s co-worker at the Fairfax County, Virginia, medical examiner’s office is Dr. Donald Haut. It was Dr. Haut, not Dr. Beyer, who actually examined Vincent Foster’s body while it was still at Fort Marcy Park, assisted by John Rolla. On page two of Dr. Haut’s signed report, the wound track is described as a “gunshot wound mouth to neck”.

This corroborates the eyewitness testimony of EMS Technician Richard Arthur, who described the gunshot wound in some detail, placing it under the right ear. This is consistent with the news story reported by Ambrose Evens-Pritchard, who described a photograph of that wound.

Was there really an exit wound out the back of Foster’s head?

Prior to the body’s delivery to Beyer, nobody reported a gunshot wound out the back of the head. EMS Sergeant Gonzalas stated he did NOT see a gunshot wound out the back of the head. John Rolla did not report a gunshot wound out the back of the head. Another EMS Technician, Cory Ashford, testified is a tape recorded interview with reporter Chris Ruddy that he was certain there was NO exit wound at the back of the head while Vincent Foster was at Fort Marcy Park!

Outside of the obviously altered page one of Dr. Haut’s report, there isn’t a single official record of a gunshot wound exiting the back of Foster’s head while he’s still at Fort Marcy Park.

It is not until the body arrives at Dr. Beyer’s morgue that the neck wound seen by Arthur and Haut seems to go away and the wound out the back of the head appears.

On the wound description page in the Beyer autopsy, the box for neck wounds has been left blank.

But the wound that Beyer DOES describe is rather odd. Supposedly, the wound is the result of a soft nosed unjacketed lead bullet being fired through two dense bones, first at the base of the skull and then at the rear. There should be metal fragments all over the wound track. For a comparison, take a look at the X-ray taken of John F. Kennedy’s skull following his assassination. Metal fragments are seen throughout the interior of the skull, and this is from a full metal jacket round, the type that LIMITS fragmentation!

Yet in describing the wound track in Vincent Foster’s head, Beyer notes on page 2 of his report that no metallic fragments were recovered during the examination! There should have been lead scrapings all over the bone perforations, had a soft-nosed lead bullet really made them!

More recently, a FBI telex was uncovered which reported that the autopsy conducted by the Fairfax County Medical Examiner had found a bullet entry but NO EXIT WOUND!”

March 1997 Report Number I-97-05
Rather than relying solely on commercial flights to move prisoners over long distances, the USMS established its own air transport capability in 1985 with the purchase of a Boeing 727 (B-727) aircraft, capable of moving about 100 prisoners at a time. The hub of the newly created Air Operations Division was located at the airport in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.”

“Training & Certification – Trusted Training Agent for ATC

Serco is the only non-governmental entity that has been authorized to certify air traffic control specialists by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the United Nations.

We have developed advanced training techniques for air traffic control that lead to accelerated learning and have a global safety culture rooted in 60-years of experience.

Next Generation Aviation Simulation

Serco was recently awarded the “Technology Implementation of the Year 2013” at the Aviation Business Awards for the implementation of a tower simulator at the Al Maktoum International Airport in Dubai.

This tower simulator, which is the largest in the world, was designed by Serco and advanced the state-of-the-art in ATC training. The system integrates genuine controller instruments to create a “live” operational environment that includes communications systems, radar displays and airfield lighting.

The simulator, which can be configured to mimic any airport in the world, enables Dubai to learn from and integrate best practices developed at other leading airports. By simulating new procedures and technologies in a highly realistic environment, air traffic controllers avoid any disruptions and fully adjust to changes before they are adopted.

This is just one more way Serco helps our clients to world-class safety and efficiency.”

“The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building[1] in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States on April 19, 1995. Perpetrated by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing killed at least 168 people,[2] injured more than 680 others, and destroyed one-third of the building.[3] The blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, and destroyed or burned 86 cars,[4][5]causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage.[6] Extensive rescue efforts were undertaken by local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies in the wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated 11 of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations.[7][8] Until the 2001 September 11 attacks, the Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest terrorist attack on American soil and remains the deadliest incident of domestic terrorism in United States history.

Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma Highway Patrolman Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession.[9][10]Forensic evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack; Nichols was arrested,[11] and within days, both were charged. Michael and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, a veteran of the Gulf War and a U.S. militia movement sympathizer, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives parked in front of the building. His co-conspirator, Nichols, had assisted with the bomb’s preparation. Motivated by his dislike for the U.S. federal government and angry about its handling of the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992 and the Waco siege in 1993, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that ended the siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas.[12][13]

The official investigation, known as “OKBOMB”, saw FBI agents conduct 28,000 interviews, amass 3.5 short tons (3,200 kg) of evidence, and collect nearly one billion pieces of information.[14][15][16] The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997. McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001, and Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. Michael and Lori Fortier testified against McVeigh and Nichols; Michael was sentenced to 12 years in prison for failing to warn the United States government, and Lori received immunity from prosecution in exchange for her testimony.

As a result of the bombing, the U.S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which tightened the standards for habeas corpus in the United States,[17] as well as legislation designed to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks. On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Remembrance services are held every year on April 19, at the time of the explosion.”

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