Indonesia’s Lion Air 610 Boeing 737 Max 8 – ADS–B, ACARS and Exploiting Aircraft Vulnerabilities

Source: The New York Times

In Indonesia Plane Crash Inquiry, New Focus on Possible Aircraft Problems

Investigators inspected the wreckage of an engine from Lion Air Flight 610 in Jakarta, the Indonesian capital, on Sunday.CreditCreditUlet Ifansasti/Getty Images

By Hannah Beech and Keith Bradsher • Nov. 7, 2018

JAKARTA, Indonesia — Investigators on Wednesday broadened the possibilities of what may have contributed to the fatal crash of a Boeing 737 Max 8 last week, suggesting there were aircraft problems that may have played a role in the new plane’s nose-dive into the sea.

Boeing and aviation regulators in the United States, clearly worried that an unforeseen situation may have confronted the cockpit crew, also took steps on Wednesday to strengthen emergency procedures in the operations manual of the new plane, one of the most popular in commercial aviation.

The developments suggested that multiple causes may have combined to create a fatal cascade of problems for Lion Air Flight 610, which plunged into the Java Sea less than 15 minutes after takeoff on Oct. 29, killing all 189 people aboard.

Haryo Satmiko, the deputy chief of Indonesia’s National Transportation Safety Committee, said in an interview that he had held several discussions with Boeing officials after the crash about the possibility that inaccurate readings fed into the Max 8’s computerized system could make the plane enter a sudden, automatic descent.

“This case is something for Boeing to reflect upon,” Mr. Haryo said.

Boeing did not comment on Mr. Haryo’s assertion. But the company said in a statement on Wednesday that the aircraft’s manual explains how to respond to errant data, and that Boeing had issued a worldwide bulletin about following correct procedures to all operators of the plane on Tuesday.

The Federal Aviation Administration of the United States reinforced the Boeing bulletin on Wednesday by issuing an “Emergency Airworthiness Directive” addressing the possibility of erroneous data from instruments on the plane that could cause it to pitch downward, “making the aircraft difficult to control.”

Please go to The New York Times to read the entire article.

 

Recent updated news on Lion Air 610:

Crashed Lion Air jet had air speed indicator glitch on fatal flight
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Lion Air Flight JT610 – Crash Animation [X-Plane 11]

 

Lion Air Flight 610 was a scheduled domestic flight operated by the Indonesian airline Lion Air from Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Jakarta to Depati Amir Airport in Pangkal Pinang that crashed 13 minutes after takeoff on 29 October 2018.

• Aircraft: Boeing 737 MAX 8
• Engines: 2 CFM International LEAP turbofan engines (CFM International is a joint venture company between GE Aviation of the United States and Safran Aircraft Engines of France)
• Registration: PK-LQP
• Aircraft delivery: 13 August 2018 (800 hours in service)
• FADEC manufactured by Safran
• Incident: Deadliest accident involving a Boeing 737
• Flight: From Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Jakarta to Depati Amir Airport in Pangkal Pinang
• Incident: Flight crew had requested clearance to return to the Jakarta airport 19 kilometres (12 mi; 10 nmi) into the flight
• Pilot: 6,000 hours flight time
• Co-pilot: 5,000 hours flight time
• Notable passengers: Twenty Indonesian Ministry of Finance employees killed

Notable passengers also included the following as well as asking a very good question: What were these 38 civil servants doing all flying on the same aircraft and why were they going to Pangkal Pinang? Who were they planning on meeting in Pangkal Pinang?

Twenty Ministry of Finance employees, ten Audit Board of Indonesia employees, two auditors from the Finance and Development Inspection Agency (id), three Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources employees, three public attorneys, three Indonesian National Police officers, seven Bangka Belitung Regional People’s Representative Council members, and three judges of Indonesia’s High Court and National Court, a total of 38 civil servants, 3 police officers and 10 state officials, were among the passengers. There were two confirmed foreigners among those on board: the pilot from India and an Italian citizen, former professional cyclist Andrea Manfredi.”

 


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Source: Aviation Today

How ACARS Will Evolve, Not Disappear, With Transition to IPS

By Woodrow Bellamy III | June 12, 2018

Allegiant, Boeing, GCASummit, Rockwell Collins

Boeing 737 MAX8 cockpit.

The Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) will not disappear in 2025 — or 2030 for that matter.

Today, ACARS is well known by flight operations engineers as the character-based messaging service that uses ARINC 618-based air-to-ground protocols to transfer data between onboard avionics systems and ground-based ACARS networks operated by one of two datalink service providers (DSPs), SITA or Rockwell Collins. In the future, ACARS will evolve and eventually transition into the Internet Protocol Suite (IPS).

IPS is a new network infrastructure under development by the SAE International ARINC Industry Activities IPS Subcommittee. It is based on Internet Protocol (IP), using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products to support air-to-ground aeronautical safety services communications. Whereas ACARS is aviation specific, IPS will use multiple line-of-sight and beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) subnetworks that operate in protected spectrum allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and ICAO for safety services, including Inmarsat SwiftBroadband, Iridium Certus, AeroMACS, future satcom and L-band Digital Aeronautical Communication System (LDACS) systems.

This is effectively the multi-link ACARS concept described by SITA, the industry’s other ACARS service provider.

What is important to note is that IPS will have backward compatibility with ACARS. In fact, Rockwell Collins sees it more as a continued evolution of ACARS, which already integrates IP into its data message transfer service.

Please go to Aviation Today to read the entire article.
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In aviation, ACARS (Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System) is a digital datalink system for transmission of short messages between aircraft and ground stations via airband radio or satellite. The protocol was designed by ARINC and deployed in 1978, using the Telex format. More ACARS radio stations were added subsequently by SITA.

Researcher shows how to hack (and crash) a passenger aircraft with an Android phone…

 

Exploiting aircraft systems:

Aircraft Hacking Practical Aero Series (PDF file)

Discovery: Automatic Dependent Surveillance—broadcast (ADS–B)
Information Gathering: ACARS (Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System)
Exploitation: Via ACARS against on-board aircraft system vulnerability
Post Exploitation: Party hard

Honeywell FMC (Flight Management System)

#HITB2013AMS D1T1 Hugo Teso – Aircraft Hacking: Practical Aero Series

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Related events in Indonesia:

Sri Mulyani Indrawati is an Indonesian economist who has been Minister of Finance of Indonesia since 2016. In June 2010 she was appointed as Managing Director of the World Bank Group and at the time resigned as Indonesia’s Minister of Finance. On July 27, 2016 she was reappointed as Minister of Finance in a “cabinet reshuffle” by President Joko Widodo, replacing Bambang Permadi Soemantri Brodjonegoro.

What is worth noting is that in August 2008, Sri Mulyani Indrawati was considered the most powerful woman in Indonesia. She had pulled Indonesia through the financial crisis of 2008 including building Indonesia’s foreign exchange reserves that reached an all-time high of $50 billion, she “oversaw a reduction in public debt to about 30% of gross domestic product from 60%”, and Indrawati also made it easier for Indonesia to sell debt to foreign institutional investors. She also revised incentive structures for civil servants in her ministry and began paying higher salaries to tax officials deemed to be “clean” so they would have less temptation to accept bribes in Indonesia’s corrupt bureaucracies.

Indonesia’s Indrawati Says EM Countries Must Adjust to ‘New Normal’

Penjelasan Utang, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, MenKeu

As soon as Sri Mulyani heard of the Lion Air 610 crash, she immediately visited the Indonesian Search and Rescue Agency’s office in Jakarta. She was seeking coordination and further information on the disaster and the 38 Indonesian civil servants including the 20 ministry of finance employees. Sri Mulyani Indrawati personally met with the relatives of the victims of Lion Air flight JT 610 and it was reported she was crying while meeting family members.

Corruption inside Indonesia’s bureaucracies is probably no worse or better than in many other countries including inside Indonesia’s ministry of finance. Joko Widodo who is the seventh and current President of Indonesia, is apparently a populist reformer, while Prabowo Subianto is a hard-liner of the Soeharto lineage with a military background. He was a former Lieutenant General in the Indonesian National Armed Forces. One of Joko Wibowo’s top priorities has been to clean up the entrenched corruption in national government, which takes a significant flow of cash out of the hands of people like Prabowo Subianto. Sri Mulyani Indrawati has been working at reform and to end this corruption as she discusses in the interview posted above.

According to Wikipedia, in 2014 Sri Purwa Indrawati was “ranked as the 38th most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine“. The following is Sri Mulyani Indrawati’s bio from the World Bank website:

Sri Mulyani Indrawati

Former Managing Director and COO

As Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer, Sri Mulyani Indrawati was responsible for the World Bank’s operations worldwide. She worked closely with client countries and member states to put operational strategies in place that address new and persistent development challenges in support of the World Bank’s goals of ending poverty and promoting shared prosperity.

Indrawati frequently represented the World Bank Group at the G20 and in other international fora. She was also responsible for the strategic direction and policy framework of the Bank’s Fund for the Poorest, IDA, one of the largest sources of assistance for the world’s 77 poorest countries.

She chaired the World Bank Group’s Advisory Council on Gender and Development, which brings together global leaders and experts on gender issues, including from the private sector.

Before joining the World Bank in June 2010, she served as Indonesia’s minister of finance in addition to being the coordinating minister of economic affairs. Her earlier positions include head of the Indonesian National Development Planning Agency, executive director at the International Monetary Fund, faculty member at the University of Indonesia and visiting professor at the Andrew Young School of Public Policy at Georgia State University. Indrawati holds a doctorate in economics from the University of Illinois and a bachelor of arts in economics from the University of Indonesia.

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