Forensic Economic Inquiry into the RMS Titanic
Source: AD (Originally published in 2010)
RMS Titanic – Marconi/RCA (now Serco) wireless patents – virtual tunnels – insurance/reinsurance – supply-chain patent pools – fire in the coal bunker (new evidence)
This is an informal inquiry based upon recent discussions of the Hawks Cafe, Captain Sherlock and Abel Danger Global virtual association of forensic economic analysts related to the historical events surrounding the sinking of the RMS (Royal Mail Steamer) Titanic (Harland and Wolff and all parts stamped 401 re: the Titanic switch for the Olympic in an alleged “insurance fraud” is a false narrative) which hit an iceberg at the coordinates 41°43′ N, 49°57’W on April 14, 1912 at 11:40PM approximately 300 miles from Lloyd’s of London-owned Cape Race, Newfoundland where a Marconi wireless land station was located.
It was alleged David Sarnoff stole the patents of the Marconi Company and that he helped start the company Radio Corporation of America (RCA) formed in 1919 which later became Serco. As it turns out, Sarnoff didn’t create RCA, he wasn’t even a top employee when it was founded. Owen D. Young was the CEO of RCA. The actual story of the creation of RCA clearly demonstrates how the connection between government and private corporations use “security” concerns to control the economy. One-hundred years later The Guardian has called Serco “probably the biggest company you’ve never heard of.” Owen D. Young of the General Electric Company, arranged for the purchase of American Marconi and turned it into the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), a radio patent monopoly in 1919-1920. David Sarnoff was named general manager of RCA and in 1930 its president. RCA was a publicly held company owned by General Electric which had a controlling interest in the company, under GE chairman Owen D. Young. Where Sarnoff excelled was using government to monopolize RCA‘s interests and then squeeze out competition like he did with Major Edwin H. Armstrong who invented the FM radio.
In July of 1897, Guglielmo Marconi was granted his famous British patent (No. 12039) and founded the Wireless Telegraphy and Signal Company Ltd. in London, with the intention of acquiring Marconi patents on an international scale. It has been stated that “from 1897 until the cataclysm of World War One, Wireless Telegraphy was woven into the social and economic fabric of the most sophisticated societies with astonishing speed.” The significance of this cannot be overestimated and in the Yearbook of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, 1913 from pages 323-326, there was a significant mention of this importance of Marconi wireless telegraphy as it related to shipping:
“In foggy weather, again, a vessel’s position can easily be ascertained by wireless; of the presence of floating derelicts, ice or other dangers to navigation she is always in a position to be advised or give advice. Safe and rapid navigation can be materially assisted by the checking of the ship’s chronometer by wireless time signals.”
David Sarnoff begins his career early from the very beginning of radio and communications where he began working for the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in New York which was later taken over by Serco:
David Sarnoff climbed up the corporate ladder of the early communications industry to head the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), a pioneer in the world of radio and television broadcasting. Sarnoff, who came to New York City from Russia in 1900 at the age of 9, began working for the American branch of the Marconi Wireless Company when he was a teenager. Ambitious and focused on the new technology of radio, he gained recognition in the company with his drive and showmanship and quickly moved into management. When Marconi Wireless was taken over by RCA, he continued to move up, taking over the presidency in 1930. By 1947 he was the CEO of RCA, the founder of NBC (1926, the first radio network) and well-known as a brilliant and ruthless businessman. Sarnoff is credited with suggesting that radios could be used for entertainment, predicting that they would become commonplace household items, and he was instrumental in the development of TV. While at RCA he spent a decade in litigation with Philo T. Farnsworth over who invented television. RCA ultimately lost the legal battle and bought the patent rights from Farnsworth in 1939.
Sarnoff earned early recognition for spending 72 hours on the radio giving news coverage of the sinking of the Titanic… On July 2, 1921 he aired a boxing match between Jack Dempsey and George Carpentier, the first major entertainment broadcast in radio history… During World War II he was a communications consultant to the U.S. government, and was named a brigadier general by General Dwight Eisenhower; after the war Sarnoff used the nickname “The General.”
If anyone was in a position to understand the coming significance of wireless telegraphy and later radio, it would have been David Sarnoff, he was later referred to as ‘King Sarnoff’:
If King Sarnoff was capable of beneficent, compassionate leadership, he was equally capable of despotic brutality. Sarnoff gladly considered the opinion of any man, be it the one who shined his shoes or the president of his board of directors. He rewarded loyalty grandly and supported his engineers unreservedly. He seldom raised his voice or violated public decorum. But to oppose David Sarnoff within the halls of his empire often resulted in a scathing verbal assault – or a call to Sarnoff’s palatial East Seventy – first street home in the after hours, during which one would be summarily dismissed.
Sarnoff’s assaults on those who opposed him from outside his empire were even more brutal. He quickly calibrated the value of controlling patents, and used the power of RCA lawyers to crush the businesses and ruin the lives of any who got in the way. Edwin Howard Armstrong and Philo Farnsworth were two who had the genius and the audacity to challenge Sarnoff in patent litigation; both men paid dearly as a result.
One such lawyer who worked for Sarnoff, was John William Griggs, who later became RCA’s president in 1908 and oversaw the merger between Marconi and RCA. Griggs served in the New Jersey General Assembly in 1876 and 1877, and the New Jersey Senate from 1883 through 1888 also acting as the president of the Senate in 1886. He was also elected Governor of New Jersey and served from 1896 through 1898. He left the state house in 1898 to serve as United States Attorney General under President William McKinley until 1901. Having a lawyer like this on your side certainly helped David Sarnoff’s RCA.
Many of the Marconi wireless inland stations tried to get information about the disaster, which in this unregulated era resulted in extensive interference and confusion about unfolding events. Included in all this was the American Marconi equipped facility, MHI, located atop the New York Wanamaker Department store, where David Sarnoff was station manager assisted by J. H. Hughes, an expert Marconi wireless operator. Sarnoff would later vastly exaggerate his importance, in progressively self-serving stories, including completely false claims that he was first in the United States to hear of the disaster.
The use of radio for long-distance communication during the disaster created extensive publicity about the tremendous value of a technology that was still very new to most people. When it became known that the Carpathia was transmitting survivor lists, which were being relayed by other stations, many sites which had radio receivers were also mobbed. The receiving sites included the American Marconi station located atop the New York Wanamaker Department Store. David Sarnoff, the New York station’s manager (and future president of the Radio Corporation of America), produced some of the best known, and unfortunately, most exaggerated accounts of this event. (His stories were generally believed to be factual until 1976, when Carl Dreher’s biography, An American Success, began to set the record straight. Kenneth Bilby’s 1986 biography, The General, also helped provide a more accurate view of Sarnoff’s actual activities).
The Marconi Company also did rather well after the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Not that it is incriminating, but immediately after the sinking of the RMS Titanic, Marconi stock rose from $55 to $225 per share and three days later, Marconi was able to merge with Western Union Telegraph Company. The Marconi assistant wireless operator, Harold Bride, after getting to New York having survived the sinking of the RMS Titanic, was given $500 for his exclusive story to David Sarnoff.
Harold Bride, the RMS Titanic‘s junior radio operator, survived the sinking of the ship, but Jack Phillips, the senior operator, died of exposure [this has not been absolutely confirmed and is speculation] after the Titanic sank. Both were Marconi employees. The New York Herald seems to have been particularly interested in exposing how its rival, the New York Times, managed to get exclusive access to Harold Bride’s personal account of the events. The Herald publicized the fact that, while the Carpathia was making its way to New York with the survivors, American Marconi officials sent telegrams to the Marconi operators, instructing them to withhold some of what they knew about the disaster so that their reports could be sold. According to later testimony by Guglielmo Marconi, the New York Times paid $500 for the exclusive rights to Bride’s story.
In addition, there were complaints that Marconi operators aboard the Carpathia had ignored two navy vessels, sent by U.S. President Taft to get information about his aide, Archibald Butts, who had been aboard the Titanic.
In this economic forensic analysis of the events surrounding the RMS Titanic, the question has been raised David Sarnoff might have been in contact, either directly while it was still afloat, with the Titanic, or with the ships that were picking up the survivors afterwards including the Carpathia? Well, in fact, David Sarnoff had messages sent from atop the New York Wanamaker Station located on the top of the Wanamaker Department Store to the operators aboard the Carpathia, the ship that came to the rescue of the RMS Titanic, telling them to limit what they were publicly reporting, until their accounts could be sold to the newspapers. In one message sent from Marconi, it read: “If you are wise, hold story. The Marconi company will take care of you.”
Carpathia‘s wireless operator, Harold Cottam, had missed previous messages from the Titanic, as he was on the bridge at the time. He then received messages from Cape Race, Newfoundland owned by Lloyd’s of London, stating they had private traffic for the Titanic. Private traffic? What exactly would “private traffic” mean? What was the extent of this private traffic that it would cause Jack Phillips to yell: “Shut up! I am busy, I am working Cape Race!” Was Phillips sending and receiving private messages for the Titanic‘s passengers only? Would have Jack Phillips yelled this had the message from the operator, Cyril Evans,on the Californian, included the prefix MSG (Master Service Gram)?
It should be noted at this point the recent discussions at Hawks Cafe, Captain Sherlock and Abel Danger, have noted that Clinton Rubin LLC ordered Serco UK to process supply-chain patent pools (9/11; see note below). Was there collusion in preparing a pre-WWI patent pool of Marconi telegraph devices with David Sarnoff and Lloyd’s of London which could have used the Marconi wireless system to send bogus telegrams ordering the RMS Titanic to change course 20 minutes before it hit the iceberg? Had there been no change of course of the RMS Titanic there probably would not have been a collision with an iceberg. Today, Serco controls U.S. Patents and as of 2013, Serco surpassed processing its 2 millionth patent.
The economic forensic analysis related to Captain (Master as seamen like Smith were referred) Smith of the RMS Titanic and this ship hitting an iceberg and subsequently sinking, might have been that he decided to alter course because he had been warned that there were icebergs ahead, and there were a number of ships in the area that were sending signals by the Marconi transmission system including out of New York. Was it possible through the patented Marconi system the RMS Titanic was equipped with to have been slightly rerouted to head straight towards the known iceberg field? If you look at this map below indicating the main Marconi wireless telegraph routing it can be clearly seen that this same route is where most transport including shipping was taking place also between England and the United States at the time the RMS Titanic went down:
This can be considered as a ‘virtual tunnel’ through the patented Marconi wireless system. As has been suggested, “the patents are the virtual tunnels and the virtual tunnels are the patents.” An interesting aspect about wireless communications around the time the Titanic went down on April 14, 1912, was that communication distances were limited to roughly 250 miles the Titanic having the most up-to-date Marconi equipment at the time. This wireless equipment was installed by Jack Phillips and Harold Bride, the Titanic‘s two Marconi wireless operators. Harold Bride was Jack Phillips’ wireless assistant. What is even more interesting is that wireless communication distances increased to several thousand miles during the evening, so is it possible a virtual tunnel through the Marconi wireless patented system could have come from a greater distance at night considering the Titanic began receiving more messages about ice flows towards the evening prior to hitting the iceberg?
The photographer, Father Frances Browne
On 4th April, 1912, Frank Browne received a pleasant surprise in the post which was a letter from the White Star line offices in Queenstown, County Cork, enclosing a first-class ticket for the RMS Titanic‘s maiden voyage from Southampton to Queenstown via Cherbourg. The ticket had been purchased for him by his uncle, Robert Browne, who at the time was Bishop of Cloyne. The Jesuit Francis Browne was also a photographer. In a collection of Frances Browne’s holographs over 1,000 photographs of the RMS Titanic were taken by Frances Browne. A Jesuit who was a photographer boarding the RMS Titanic then debarking before the RMS Titanic‘s fateful voyage who took an estimated 1,000 photographs of the Titanic? Earlier of Father Francis Browne’s life related to WWI he was awarded a third-level of military decoration the Military Cross.
During his short voyage on the Titanic, Francis Browne was befriended by an American millionaire couple who were seated at his table in the RMS Titanic‘s first-class dining saloon. They offered to pay his way to New York and back in return for Francis Browne spending the voyage to New York in their company perhaps to have him take pictures for historical reasons. Francis Browne also took the only known photograph al beit a double exposure of the Marconi wireless room aboard the RMS Titanic?
As a novitiate in the Catholic Church, Frances Browne telegraphed his superior in the Catholic Church requesting permission to continue on to New York, but the reply was an unambiguous wireless telegraphic reply: “GET OFF THAT SHIP – PROVINCIAL”. Whether this is a “quirk of fate” is unknown, but the denial of Browne’s request to remain on the RMS Titanic probably saved his life because looking at a list of Titanic survivors, few men in first class survived the sinking.
Frances Browne was the only person to have ever taken the picture of the Marconi room on the RMS Titanic and interestingly enough, this is the only picture that Frances Browne retained. After crossing the English Channel, the Titanic stopped at Cherbourg, France, to board additional passengers and stopped again the next day at Queenstown (known today as Cobh), Ireland and this was as far as Francis Browne’s purchased ticket was to take him.
Sir Edward Mountain was initially a Lloyd’s of London insurance underwriter and broker and he famously refused to insure the RMS Titanic before it sank on the night of April 14, 1912. For whatever reasons, Sir Edward Mountain refused to insure the Titanic and we will probably never know, but it is interesting that he did make this decision nonetheless. Maybe he had a conscience, who knows, but it is interesting he left Lloyd’s of London after this and started his own firm called Hawley Mountain and later changed to Gardner Mountain that became one of the largest insurance companies in the United kingdom.
Marconi wireless telegraphic messages
What could be considered the most important wireless message sent to the Titanic warning of ice floes sent at 9:40PM in the evening of the 14th just two hours before the Titanic hit the iceberg at 11:40PM, was sent by the ship Mesaba. Marconi wireless message from the Mesaba to the RMS Titanic:
“From ‘Mesaba‘ to ‘Titanic‘ and all east-bound ships. Ice report in lat. 42° N. to 41° 25′ N., long. 49° to long. 50° 30’ W. Saw much heavy pack ice and great number large icebergs. Also field ice. Weather good, clear.”
This message clearly indicated the presence of ice in the immediate vicinity of the Titanic, and if it had reached the bridge would perhaps have affected the navigation of the vessel. Unfortunately, it does not appear to have been delivered to Master Smith of the Titanic or to any of its officers. The Marconi wireless operator, Jack Phillips, seemed to have been very busy from 8 o’clock onward transmitting messages via the Marconi wireless inland station located at Cape Race, Newfoundland for passengers on board the Titanic. A close study of the Mesaba telegram provides the answer: the vital MSG prefix was not used by the Radio Officer on the Mesaba, who substituted the words “Ice report” as will be further looked at as this analysis continues.
At this point it would be helpful to understand how the course was decided on for the Titanic‘s Captain Smith. It was planned for the Titanic to steer a great circle course from Ireland to a point well clear of ice at 42°N, 47° W. From there a rhumb line course of 266°T would be steered for New York. A rhumb line is a line crossing all meridians of longitude at the same angle, i.e. a path derived from a defined initial bearing.
In practice, a great circle course is steered in a series of rhumb lines, with the course usually being changed at every 10° change of Longitude. This procedure resulted in Titanic heading for her last turning point on a course of 242° T. Her final change of course to 266° T brought her heading back towards the ice field.
Most of the messages it would appear were similar to most of the mundane email messages of today when the internet became heavily used. It is important to understand Marconi employees, although technically employed with the Titanic (White Star Line), they were actually employed by Marconi so they were not under any specific responsibility to forward “non-essential” messages of ice flows to the bridge. Money was made by telegraphing passenger messages and passenger tips, not iceberg warnings.
There seemed to have been a thirty minute delay made by Captain Smith when he first decided to reroute the Titanic to avoid ice flows as described in the quote below. What ultimately did Captain Smith base his decision on to delay turning the Titanic for 30 minutes, was it a wireless telegram giving a recommended course change? If so, where did that recommendation originate from?
As the turning point was approached, efforts would have been made to determine the ship’s position as accurately as possible, given the means available. This would have been done by taking a sun sight late in the day, when the sun bore nearly west, and working out a Longitude by Chronometer. This would have given the Longitude to within a mile or so. The estimated Latitude may have been somewhat in error, however, as it was obtained by carrying forward the Noon Latitude obtained nearly six hours earlier. This carrying forward depended on dead reckoning, based on the estimated speed and the course steered and hence was open to errors.
By the time of the collision, the RMS Titanic was some 5 miles south of where she would have been, had she been perfectly on course. This is believed to have been due to Captain Smith electing to hold his course for about 30 minutes after passing the turning point and perhaps a small error in Latitude at the turning point.
However, there is little doubt that had Jack Phillips, a skilled and experienced Marconi wireless operator, been given a MSG prefix (Masters’ Service Gram) when he received the signal, it would have been delivered to the bridge and would have received the necessary acknowledgment from Captain Smith – who would have at once been alerted to the potential danger ahead. This message it seems, was never acknowledged by Captain (Master) Smith and so would this possibly that Captain Smith did not receive this MSG? In fact, Captain Smith was in his room when the Titanic hit the iceberg therefore possibly indicating he was confident the Titanic was under no potential threat of hitting an iceberg.
John George “Jack” Phillips (according to Logan Marshall in The Sinking of the Titanic, on page 12 it was ‘Dan Phillips’) was the British wireless telegraphist who died (not necessarily confirmed; he went in the opposite direction on the ship of Harold Bride his assistant when they left the Marconi room) while on the Titanic after the ship hit the iceberg and sank. Phillips was serving as senior wireless operator on board the maiden voyage of the Titanic. In March 1906, Jack Phillips joined the Marconi Company attending their Wireless and Telegraphy training school at Seaforth Barracks, Liverpool. Before Jack Phillips went to wireless and telegraph training, he worked as a wireless operator at a post office in Godalming which later became a branch of HSBC Bank.
In probably the most ironic wireless signal exchange of the whole RMS Titanic series of events, Cyril Evans, the (inexperienced) radio officer on the SS Californian also failed to use the MSG prefix when instructed by Captain Stanley Lord to inform the Titanic and other ships of the ice field. Evans’ informal chatty message to the Titanic led to the infamous rebuke by the overworked wireless operator Jack Phillips: “Keep out, I’m working Cape Race!“, when Evans attempted to inform the Titanic of the iceberg fields. It was mentioned in several historical reports that the Marconi wireless was down and the operators had a backlog of messages to send for passengers and they worked for tips. But if this was the case why weren’t the telegraphs properly marked for the Captain Smith’s attention with the MSG prefix? Cape Race was owned by Lloyd’s of London.
Captain Stanley Lord was considered to have exceeded the qualifications of the senior officers aboard the Titanic having passed all of his Master and Extra Masters examinations for certification. With an impeccable record it was rare for someone of his young age to be a Master in the fleet at 36 years-old when the RMS Titanic sunk. An outstanding achievement when most would have been in their fifth decade before ever receiving the helm of a ship.
Captain J. D. MacNab who was on the Board of Trade who gave examinations for Masters in Liverpool, made an interesting comment about Captain Stanley Lord:
“…later recalled that Lord had passed all his examinations most brilliantly, with his later testimonials for good conduct and ability at sea being invariably of the highest order. I have ever heard him spoken of as a humane and clever officer and commander.”
The SS Californian was owned by the Leyland Line which was owned by Frederick Richards Leyland, who built the Leyland Line company to the largest shipping company in Britain. In 1892, Sir John Ellerman made his first move into shipping by leading a consortium which purchased the Leyland Line. Frederick Richards Leyland had died previous to this purchase of the Leyland Line. In 1901, Sir John Ellerman sold this business to J.P. Morgan for £1.2 million, which was immediately folded into the International Mercantile Marine Co.. This would mean Captain Stanley Lord was actually working for J.P Morgan interests because J.P Morgan now owned the Leyland Line purchased from John Ellerman. J.P Morgan was attempting to monopolize shipping when the International Mercantile Marine Co. was formed.
If there is any doubt about the effectiveness of the Marconi wireless technology, Captain Arthur Rostron of the Carpathia, the first ship to reach the RMS Titanic location, told his Second Office James Bisset: “Wonderful thing, wireless, isn’t it.” After having told him the latest news on the known positions of icebergs. This was at around 10:00 p.m., April 14th, 1912 just an hour and forty minutes before the Titanic hit the iceberg.
Captain Stanley Lord – Captain of the SS Californian (British ship)
In the inquiry following the RMS Titanic‘s sinking, the Captain of the SS Californian, Captain Stanley Lord, is known not to have fixed his position on the location of his ship on the evening of April 14th, something that at the time was not entirely uncommon. Captain Stanley also brought his ship under “minimum steam” since apparently this was Captain Stanley’s first experience in an ice field.
After both the American and British official inquiries concluded that the SS Californian (which had reported itself stopped as Captain Stanley Lord ordered) was the “mystery ship” that was alleged to have been seen to approach within five miles of the sinking RMS Titanic and then recede, it was reluctantly decided by the Leyland line that Captain Lord would have to be asked to resign his commission.
There was also a question of how many flares, or rockets as they were called, were fired from the crew from “two firing positions on either side of the bridge” (port side and starboard side) on the Titanic in their distress. Lord Mersey first espoused this determined number of “eight flares fired” in his final report from the official inquiry, published at the end of July, 1912 :
“In all, Mr. Boxall fired about eight rockets. There appears to be no doubt that the vessel whose lights he saw was the Californian. The evidence from the Californian speaks of eight rockets having been seen between 12.30 and 1.40. The number sent up by the Titanic was about eight. The Californian saw eight.”
However, there is controversy as reports from eyewitnesses place the number of flares fired at around twelve and maybe more. It seems as though Lord Mersey wanted to keep the official record of eight rockets fired and so that number has become the official Broad of Trade report. Other researches have suggested that white flares were to show that there was a “party or celebrations going on and that everything was apparently alright”, and that red flares were indicative of distress and somebody was about to die. From reading various descriptions there were apparently no red flares on board the Titanic so the crew used the only flares they had: white flares. This might have been the one reason why Captain Lord of the Californian didn’t respond to the Titanic‘s distress SOS calls in the form of white flares? The flares were fired in distress and were not meant potential rescuers to respond to the sound of the flares going off but for attracting attention to their brightness. A more careful reading suggests the opposite.
Several distress signals were fired from Titanic during her sinking. These socket signals were small mortars, launched by a gunpowder charge equivalent to that used in a 12-pound cannon . They made very big bangs. Around the time that the signals were fired, observers on Californian saw “white rockets” to the south, but didn’t report hearing any explosions.
He later states in the inquiry concerning events of the Titanic sinking: “state secrets” and refused to give Boston news reporters his exact position during the night of April 14th. The inquiry found that the SS California was much closer to the RMS Titanic than the 19.5 miles (31.4 km) its position was stated to be, and in fact, it was between 10 and 16 miles away when the Titanic went down.
The picture below is a scanned copy of the photographic print of the iceberg with which the RMS Titanic supposedly collided with on the night of April 14, 1912 at 11:40PM at a latitude very close to 41°43′ N, 49°57’W, as per the 1990/92 inquiry.
This iceberg was photographed by the chief steward of the liner Prinze Adelbert on the morning of April 15, 1912, just a few miles south of where the RMS Titanic went down. The steward hadn’t yet heard about the Titanic. What caught his attention was the smear of red paint along the base of the iceberg, indicating that it had collided with a ship sometime in the previous twelve hours. This photo and information was taken from “UNSINKABLE”: The Full Story of RMS Titanic written by Daniel Allen Butler, Stackpole Books, 1998.
A controversial new book The Other Side of the Night has posthumously pointed the finger directly at Captain Stanley Lord claiming he was a “sociopath” whose callous indifference condemned 1,517 to a watery grave. In writing this book, the author of The Other Side of the Night, Daniel Allen Butler, commissioned a number of clinical psychologists to examine Lord’s sworn testimony as well as reports of his actions both before and after the tragedy. He said their conclusions were unanimous and damning:
“It was never contested by Captain Lord, or his officers, that what was seen from the bridge of the Californian were white rockets, which in 1912 were the internationally recognised signal for distress.”White rockets meant that somebody, somewhere, was about to die, yet Lord choose to ignore them. What has remained unexplained for more than nine decades is why Lord would so callously choose to disregard such a plea for help.”The answer, which lies in medical science, is that Stanley Lord was a man without conscience: he was a sociopath.”
The Titanic was directly owned and operated by the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company – popularly known as the “White Star” line because of the white star appearing on the company’s house flag. The White Star flag was first flown about 1850 in an attempt to capitalize on the gold rush trade to Australia. The line was eventually purchased by Thomas Ismay who reorganized the company in 1869.
By 1902, White Star was no longer an independent company. The line was purchased and became a wholly owned subsidiary of the International Navigation Co (Ltd.) of England, which in turn was owned by the International Mercantile Marine Co. of New Jersey – all under the control of industrial giant J. P. Morgan. At the time of Titanic’s loss, White Star had a fleet of ships operating between the United Kingdom and Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Among the White Star company’s rules was “Rule 101” which included an interesting statement:
“Commander’s are reminded that the [company’s] steamers are to a great extent uninsured and that their [commanders] only livelihood, as well as the company’s, depends on immunity from accident.”
This means ship captains would avoid unnecessary risk.
The International Mercantile Marine (IMM Co.) was owned by J.P. Morgan
In 1902, American conglomerate, the International Mercantile Marine Co. (owned by J. Pierpont Morgan, (President of IMM Co, was Phillip A.S. Franklin; 1910 Jekyll Island attendee) absorbed Cunard’s British rival, the White Star Line. Morgan “fortuitously” sold the line before the stock market crash for a nice profit in 1926. Morgan despised uncooperative competition and if the economic /financial history is carefully observed it can be shown that Morgan made every attempt to eliminated it.
It should also be observed in this forensic economic discussion that J.P. Morgan was the representative of Rothschild interests and control of the commerce and more importantly the coming Federal Reserve that came into law in 1913 in the United States. Morgan subsequently purchased many of the White Star Line’s rival shipping companies in order to control shipping prices. Construction of the White Star Line’s RMS Titanic began March 31, 1909. The RMS Titanic sank on her maiden voyage across the Atlantic on April 15, 1912 at 11:40PM.
In an interesting newspaper article that appeared early in the morning of the 15th of April, 1912 concerning the RMS Titanic‘s fate, which was confusing because there were many wireless operators sending out confusing reports, a reference was made to the value of the reinsurance premiums held on the RMS Titanic by Lloyd’s of London. Note that as news of the Titanic stopped, the premiums were hirer; and as erroneous news appeared saying that the ship was being towed to Halifax, the premiums dropped in value.
London, April 15 – The news that the wireless dispatches from the Titanic had ceased reached Lloyd’s , and the reinsurance on the vessel reached 60 per cent premium. Later when news was received the vessel was being towed to Halifax there was a drop to 25 per cent, at which rate it closed.
There were it was alleged, erroneous messages being sent out on the wireless network as to the safety of the RMS Titanic. It is not certain who sent these messages out or why. This was reported by the London Standard asking “who sent the wireless falsehoods?”
Phillip A.S. Franklin, the American president of J. P. Morgan’s International Mercantile Marine Company (IMM Co.), through the bond holders (who held the bonds?) Franklin summarized the situation by stating, “in a general way International Mercantile Marine Company through its various ramifications, owns the White Star Line.” Franklin did not believe there was any company crossing the Atlantic that carries such a large proportion of its own insurance as the subsidiary companies of the International Mercantile Marine Company. Franklin explained the insurance policy,
“This ship was insured by outside underwriters for $5,000,000, in round figures. It was, in Pounds, about a million Pounds. The company carried the remainder, up to about $600,000 – between $500,000 and $600,000. That is, our insurance fund carried the remainder.”
There were several other insurance underwriters of the Titanic and from the historical record the Titanic‘s hull and machinery were insured for approximately £1,000,000 (roughly £35,000,000 in today’s value). The brokers were Willis Faber and Dumas Ltd,; and the leading underwriters were Commercial Union Assurance Co Ltd., which later evolved into the fifth largest insurer in the world, the British owned Aviva plc (Aviva is Hebrew for spring or renewal). Aviva plc (previously Commercial Union Asssurance Co Ltd.) is a firm going back more than 300 years and its current chairman is Lord Sharman. The other main insurance company that covered the insurance on the Titanic was the Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company of New York which folded three years ago after failing to recover from the claims related to September 11, 2001.
Aviva plc was the first insurance company to become “carbon neutral” globally. How does an insurance company become “carbon neutral?” Sounds more like propaganda to enforce limits on carbon emissions. As has been previously pointed out in the forensic analysis of events surrounding 9/11, KPMG has been discussed extensively many times. Lord Sharman was chairman of KPMG beginning in 1997.
As of July 2008, the company Willis Faber & Co. placed third in the world among insurance brokers by brokerage revenues, behind Marsh & McLennan and Aon Corp. Marsh & McLennan Companies Inc. is a principal competitor of Lloyd’s of London. Marsh & McLennan it should be remembered had offices in the Twin Towers which were destroyed on 911 as well as AON Corporation, another major insurer and competitor of Lloyd’s of London.
There is record of an insurance claim being paid out on the RMS Titanic insured for £1 million (£35,000,000 million in today’s value) and placed by the brokers Willis Faber and Johnson & Higgins who collected the whole claim in less than 30 days. The sum was paid promptly to the White Star Line. The Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company also helped to insure the RMS Titanic. The ship was insured for $140,000 through Atlantic Mutual Insurance, of which $100,000 was held by Atlantic Mutual.
The news of the Titanic wreck being received in the United States seemed to have all been coming from New York which was probably coming from David Sarnoff at the top of the New York Wanamaker Department store, with his assistant manager J. H. Hughes operating the Marconi wireless. There was an exception and this wireless telegraph message came at 2:00AM from the Lloyd’s signal station at Cape Race giving only the first details stating that the Titanic had struck an iceberg and was apparently sinking and that the transfer of passengers had already started.
It is important to look at an important connection between Lloyd’s of London and when Lloyd’s set up wireless stations outside of England as part of its worldwide intelligence apparatus. The wife of Winston Churchill was a woman by the name of Clementine Hozier. Clementine Hozier was the daughter of Sir Henry Montague Hozier. Henry Hozier had a stellar military background and graduated from Edinburgh College; what is most interesting is that Henry Hozier was directly responsible for setting up a very sophisticated intelligence network when he was secretary of Lloyds for almost 30 years until he died. This is significant for a number of reasons because the Cape Race station in Newfoundland as previously mentioned, was owned by Lloyd’s and it was from this location messages were being relayed back and forth between the Titanic and Cape Race.
This becomes even more intriguing because Lloyd’s of London were the underwriters of the reinsurance on the Titanic, in other words, insurers and brokers of the Titanic went to Lloyd’s of London for reinsurance and there is confirmation of this from the following:
1 Lime Street London
EC3M 7HA United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 7327-1000
Fax: +44 7327-5599
Web site: http://www.lloyds.com
Private CompanyIncorporated: 1871 as Society of Lloyd’s
Total Assets: $237.5 billion (2003)
Insurance Agencies and Brokerages Perhaps the world’s most famous insurance group, Lloyd’s is a uniquely organized insurance market. It does not sell insurance per se, but regulates a market through which insurance contracts are transacted. The organization is a society of individuals—and, since 1994, corporations—that accept liability for claims under insurances accepted on their behalf. In a nutshell, Lloyd’s brokers act on behalf of their clients. Over the course of its more than three centuries in business, this unique group has brokered policies for the routine (it is Great Britain’s leading automotive insurer) as well as the weird.
Unusual contracts written at Lloyd’s have included the following: a food critic who insured his taste buds for £250,000; a comedy troupe that took out a policy to cover the risk that an audience might die laughing; and rock star Bruce Springsteen, who insured his voice for £3.5 million. Although the group’s most famous claim is probably the sinking of the Titanic in 1912, numerous and massive claims in the late 1980s and early 1990s threatened to “sink” the venerable Lloyd’s.
Perhaps the world’s most famous insurance groups in the world is Lloyd’s of London first organized in 1688 at a coffeehouse in Tower Street London. Lloyd’s does not sell insurance per se, but regulates a market through which insurance contracts are transacted. An insurance contract was decided on the Titanic. To understand better how Lloyd’s works, here is a brief description:
Business can be placed only by approved insurance brokers, known as Lloyd’s brokers, which are in turn grouped in 164 underwriting syndicates. Marine underwriters have always felt the need for information about ship construction. As early as 1760 they formed a registration society which published a book of details of ships for the use of subscribers only. In 1798 ship owners began publishing a similar book. In 1834 the two publications were merged to form Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, administered by a committee representing shipowners, merchants, and marine underwriters. The register operates as a corporation separate from Lloyd’s.
During the first half of the 1800s this committee was almost entirely concerned with intelligence gathering, e.g., weather conditions, commodities being shipped, ship movement, port calls, passenger movement, dignitaries traveling by ship, all this intelligence certainly being gathered for the sole benefit of Lloyd’s members who had great amounts of money invested in reinsurance contracts.
Beginning in the early 1800s Lloyd’s appointed firms and persons in ports throughout the world to provide shipping information as part of its intelligence-gathering network. These firms and persons probably only had a commercial interest with Lloyd’s. By 1829 there were over 350 Lloyd’s Agents, as they were called. Whether or not these agents reported just on damaged property or just doing surveys is hard to tell; they would presumably have been involved in other intelligence activities as well.
The idea these ‘agents’ might not include ‘sabotage, assassination and deception teams’ isn’t that far removed of an observation considering recent events. The reason this is mentioned is because just like in the gambling game craps, there was also gambling in insurance. Gambling on insurance became so corrupt in fact, that back in 1769 a group of underwriters who disapproved of gambling insurances persuaded a Lloyd’s waiter, Thomas Fielding, to open a New Lloyd’s Coffee House. To presume the gambling didn’t continue is to underestimate the power these Lloyd agents had after having collected hundreds of years of intelligence on shipping for Lloyd’s.
Marine underwriters such as Lloyd’s have always felt the need for information about ship construction was significantly important as part of its intelligence network. As early as 1760 they formed a registration society which published a book of details of ships for the use of subscribers only. From 1874 until 1906 this ‘provision for intelligence’ came into the hands of Sir Henry Montague Hozier.
The provision of intelligence loomed large in the work of Sir Henry Montague Hozier. Henry Hozier (1838–1907) (Edinburgh College), who was secretary from 1874 to 1906. In addition to strengthening Lloyd’s’ central staff, he saw the desirability of getting information promptly, and set up coastal telegraph stations for that purpose [including the wireless station at Cape Race]. By 1884 Lloyd’s had 17 stations at home and six abroad.
Lloyd’s worked in cooperation with the admiralty and Hozier had many years of military experience fighting in wars for Britain. Hozier was knighted. And more importantly he was a pioneer of wireless telegraphy which Lloyd’s used extensively early in the 20th century. Until this day the objectives of the society were stated as the carrying on of marine insurance by members and the collection and publication of intelligence. Hozier had an extremely important role in the affairs of how Lloyd’s of London operated:
Henry Montague Hozier was born in 1838. He was educated at Rugby and at Edinburgh Academy, and then at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. He became a Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, and Lieutenant in the 2nd Life Guards. Hozier was Assistant Military Secretary to Lord Napier of Magdala in the Abyssinian Expedition and he served with the Royal Artillery Expedition to Beijing (Peking). In 1866 he was with the German army and was Assistant Military Attache in the war of 1870-1871. He received the Iron Cross from the German Emperor for his service in the 1870-1871 war. He was awarded the C.B. in 1897 and was created K.C.B. in 1903. His publications include Seven weeks’ war, and the History of British expedition to Abyssinia. Hozier had married Henrietta Blanche Ogilvy, daughter of David Ogilvy, 7th Earl of Airlie on 28 September 1873. In September 1908, their second daughter Clementine Hozier married Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, later the Prime Minister.
Sir Henry Montague Hozier died on 28 February 1907. Although Henry Hozier died in 1907 which was five years before the sinking of the Titanic, the intelligence network he put in place through Lloyd’s with the wireless telegraphy remained in place and if anything, in those five years before the Titanic hit an iceberg and sank Lloyd’s intelligence channels became even better.
In 1902, the American conglomerate, the International Mercantile Marine Co. (a trust) which has been previously pointed out which was owned by J. Pierpont Morgan, (President of IMM Co, was Phillip A.S. Franklin and in 1910 he attended the Jekyll Island meeting to plan the Federal Reserve Bank) absorbed Cunard’s British rival, the White Star Line, the company that owned the RMS Titanic. In this last part of this forensic economic analysis, it would be remiss to not briefly discuss a few well connected financial/economic details:
Morgan “fortuitously” sold the line before the stock market crash for a nice profit in 1926. Morgan despised uncooperative competition and always eliminated it. He purchased many of the White Star Line’s rival shipping companies in order to control shipping prices. Construction of the White Star Line’s Titanic began March 31, 1909. The Titanic sank on her maiden voyage across the Atlantic on April 15, 1912. Emergency response was too late, there were an inadequate number of lifeboats and other suspicious factors existed. Over 1500 people perished, including some influential people who allegedly opposed the formation of the Federal Reserve (America’s war checkbook): Benjamin Guggenheim, Isidor Strauss and John Jacob Astor. An American and British Commissioner’s Inquiry was held – “the loss of the said ship was due to collision with an iceberg, brought about by the excessive speed at which the ship was being navigated.” Truth is rarely discovered by any Bankster-controlled government that convenes a commission. People who probe too deeply or otherwise disappoint their handlers get spitzered. [Ed. also see Paul Collins’ Human Compromise]
Probably one of the most ‘fortuitous’ events to have been to the great advantage of the Rothschild banking empire were the deaths of Benjamin Guggenheim, Isa Straus and John Jacob Astor, these three men were probably the strongest opposition to the creation of Rothschild’s Federal Reserve Bank in America which had been worked out at Jekyll Island in November of 1910, less than two years before the Titanic sunk.
Benjamin Guggenheim (October 26, 1865 – April 15, 1912) was an American businessman. Apparently, Guggenheim left a a ‘survivor message’ saying, “If anything should happen to me, tell my wife I’ve done my best in doing my duty.” Duty to what, his wife, the other passengers, trying to prevent the creation of the Federal Reserve? Guggenheim’s wealth was essentially created through his father who was a wealthy mining magnate, Meyer Guggenheim. Bernard Baruch was responsible for setting up the second greatest trust (copper) in the United States placing it in the hands of the Guggenheim family where it has remained ever since. What hasn’t been determined yet and what would be revealing, would be to explore what insurer insured Guggenheim’s life? As a forensic economist did Guggenheim’s life being on the Titanic make him a good “target” for reinsurance?
John Jacob Astor IV (July 13, 1864 – April 15, 1912) who was an American millionaire businessman, real estate builder, inventor, writer, a member of the prominent Astor family, and a lieutenant colonel in the Spanish-American War, was a passenger of the Titanic. His body was later recovered by the steamer Mackay-Bennett on April 22, seven days after the Titanic sank. When his body was recovered near the sinking his personal effects found on him were recorded as a gold watch, cuff links, gold with diamond; diamond ring with three stones; £225 in English notes; $2440 in notes; £5 in gold; 7s. in silver; 5 ten franc pieces; gold pencil; pocketbook. Isn’t it amazing about the wealthy to be sure and take all the wealth you can with you even when death seems imminent? As a forensic economist did Astor’s life being on the Titanic make him a good “target” for reinsurance?
However, of these three men, Guggenheim, Astor and Straus, Isidor Straus, when looked at for his importance from a forensic economic analysis point of view, he was probably the most significant standing in opposition to the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913 worked out in 1910 on Jekyll Island when the technical aspects were written by Paul M. Warburg who represented the Rothschild interests.
“The matter of a uniform discount rate was discussed and settled at Jekyll Island.” — Paul Warburg
Isidor Straus stood firmly in the way of the European banking cartel because it should be recognized, he served briefly as a member of the United States House of Representatives, so this put him in a position to understand the competing interests between Britain and the United States centered in New York where Straus’ family built Macy’s Department Store. When Straus was much younger he was given an opportunity to go to England as the agent for an importing company that at the time wanted to “undertake certain shipbuilding contracts.” This is probably what compelled him to travel on the Titanic, his interest in ships, who along with his wife, Ida, also died with him. The most significant aspect of Straus’ opposition to the Federal reserve, was his experience in banking and sound money, an understanding neither Astor or Guggenheim had making them less of a “valuable insurance target” by the “virtual tunnel” through the patented Marconi wireless system and the insurance and reinsurance on the RMS Titanic.
He is a Director in the Hanover National Bank and the New-York County National Bank, is Vice President of the Birbeck Company, and President of the Pottery and Glassware Board of Trade. He is a prominent member of the Chamber of Commerce. The thoroughness with which Mr. Straus informed himself upon the currency question, and the ability that he had displayed in presenting arguments in favor of sound money, added to the confidence and respect which merchants in this city felt for him, and last July, when the condition of business was desperate, and grave doubt was entertained as to the position of the President with reference to the expediency of convening Congress in extra session before September, Mr. Straus went to Washington.
Again, as a forensic economist, did Strauss’ life being on the RMS Titanic make him a perfect “target” for reinsurance? More intriguing, what was the insurance/reinsurance on Isidor Strauss’ life and what insurance company/s brokered this insurance? Did Isidor Strauss oppose the formation of the Federal Reserve because of his support for sound money therefore becoming a target of J.P.Morgan? J.P Morgan was scheduled to be on the Titanic‘s maiden voyage possibly to lure Strauss, Astor and Guggenheim onto the Titanic for the trip but cancelled shortly before the voyage. As has been suggested, maybe the construction of the RMS Titanic and the accompanying fanfare and maiden voyage was a facade to attract Isidor Strauss, John Jacob Astor IV and Benjamin Guggenheim onboard to have them conveniently eliminated when the Titanic sunk?
As an aside note, when John Astor went down with the Titanic that also meant the end of wireless transmission that Nicola Tesla had been working on would no longer be financed by Astor which significantly increased Marconi’s wireless monopoly. J.P. Morgan refused to finance Nicola Tesla’s inventions.
As in the early 1900’s as it is today, what we are seeing here is a struggle over where the center of economic power will reside which would seemed to have been permanently taken away from America after the events of 9/11 and returned to the City of London through the 108 Worshipful Companies that have monopolized trade and an apparent sophisticated control of patent pools by Serco.
The forensic economic observation of what has been evolving here over the centuries based on an understanding of events like the Titanic, 9/11 and perhaps even the recent missing Malaysian Flight 370, considering recent technological advances since wireless communications, is a highly sophisticated military grade type of killing machine buried deep in the insurance and pension fund industry to take control of credit using “virtual tunnels” and “patent pools to monopolize trade.
Fire in the Titanic‘s coal bunker
(Edited on April 12, 2018) New evidence has been presented suggesting there was a coal fire inside the Titanic‘s coal bunker which seriously compromised the hull of the ship in the same exact location where the Titanic hit the iceberg. If this recent evidence is credible, it means an entirely different view of why the Titanic sunk. How is it the Titanic could have hit an iceberg at the same exact location where the hull was compromised by the coal bunker fire?
Titanic fire: New evidence suggests huge coal fire sank Titanic in 1912 – TomoNews
Titanic – The New Evidence
Note on patents:
Serco‘s one millionth Patent Application in US
Date : 20 May 2010
Serco has recently processed the one millionth patent application for the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) under a contract awarded in 2006. The Serco team has processed an average of 350,000 applications annually – or about 1,350 application on a typical day.
After being awarded the contract in 2006, Serco built a virtually paperless classifications operation. The operation included establishing a secure facility and IT infrastructure, recruiting and training highly skilled staff, and implementing a set of automated tools that streamlined the classification process while minimizing errors.
Under the contract the Serco team is required to identify the correct classification from more than 150,000 possible U.S. classifications and more than 70,000 international classifications (Serco controls global patent pools, therefore its bankers control world trade; Serco‘s banker is HSBC; the sponsor of SOS Pedophile Villages!). This is required while maintaining an accuracy rate of better than 95% and completing work within strict time limits. The facility located in Harrisonburg, Virginia employs more than 100 Serco and subcontractor employees. The team have received numerous performance incentives for exceeding the USPTO contract’s requirements for accurate assignment of application classifications, achieving a 96% accuracy rate over the most recent 12 months.
Ed Casey Chief Executive Officer of Serco‘s business in the US said: “We are very proud of the work being done by the Serco team and we celebrate their achievement of this important milestone. The work they do for the USPTO is critical to our country’s technological and economic leadership. Serco has established a steller reputation of delivering innovative solutions and substantial value to our customers in the federal government in carrying out their important work”.
“The British are mentioned in the bible: And the meek shall inherit the earth.” — Mark Twain