Source: Paul Andrew Mitchell, Supreme Law Library
31 Questions and Answers about
the Internal Revenue Service
Paul Andrew Mitchell, B.A., M.S.
Internet URL of home page:
Internet URL of this file:
1. Is the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) an organization within the U.S. Department of the Treasury?
Answer: No. The IRS is not an organization within the United States Department of the Treasury
. The U.S. Department of the Treasury was organized by statutes now codified in Title 31
of the United States Code, abbreviated “31 U.S.C.” The only mention of the IRS anywhere
in 31 U.S.C. §§ 301‑315 is an authorization for the President to appoint an Assistant General Counsel in the U.S. Department of the Treasury to be the Chief Counsel for the IRS. See 31 U.S.C. 301
At footnote 23 in the case of Chrysler Corp. v. Brown
, 441 U.S. 281 (1979
), the U.S. Supreme Court admitted that no organic Act for the IRS could be found, after they searched for such an Act all the way back to the Civil War, which ended in the year 1865 A.D.
The Guarantee Clause
in the U.S. Constitution
guarantees the Rule of Law to all Americans (we are to be governed by Law and not by arbitrary bureaucrats). See Article IV, Section 4
. Since there was no organic Act creating it, IRS is not a lawful organization.
2. If not
an organization within the U.S. Department of the Treasury
, then what exactly is the IRS?
Answer: The IRS appears to be a collection agency working for foreign banks and operating out of Puerto Rico under color of the Federal Alcohol Administration (“FAA”). But the FAA was promptly declared unconstitutional inside the 50 States by the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of U.S. v. Constantine
, 296 U.S. 287 (1935
), because Prohibition
had already been repealed.
In 1998, the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit identified a second “Secretary of the Treasury” as a man by the name of Manual Díaz-Saldaña. See the definitions of “Secretary
” and “Secretary or his delegate
” at 27 CFR 26.11
(formerly 27 CFR 250.11), and the published decision in Used Tire International, Inc. v. Manual Díaz-Saldaña
, court docket number 97‑2348
, September 11, 1998. Both definitions mention Puerto Rico.
When all the evidence is examined objectively, IRS appears to be a money laundry, extortion racket, and conspiracy to engage in a pattern of racketeering activity, in violation of 18 U.S.C. 1951
and 1961 et seq.
(“RICO”). Think of Puerto RICO
(Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act); in other words, it is an organized crime syndicate operating under false and fraudulent pretenses. See also the Sherman Act
and the Lanham Act
3. By what legal authority, if any, has the IRS established offices inside the 50 States of the Union?
Answer: After much diligent research, several investigators have concluded that there is no known Act of Congress, nor any Executive Order, giving IRS lawful jurisdiction to operate within any of the 50 States of the Union.
Their presence within the 50 States appears to stem from certain Agreements on Coordination of Tax Administration (“ACTA
”), which officials in those States have consummated with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. A template
for ACTA agreements can be found at the IRS Internet website and in the Supreme Law Library
on the Internet.
However, those ACTA agreements are demonstrably fraudulent, for example, by expressly defining “IRS” as a lawful bureau within the U.S. Department of the Treasury. (See Answer to Question 1
above.) Moreover, those ACTA
agreements also appear to violate State laws requiring competitive bidding before
such a service contract can be awarded by a State government to any subcontractor. There is no evidence to indicate that ACTA
agreements were reached after competitive bidding processes; onthe contrary, the IRS is adamant about maintaining a monopoly
4. Can IRS legally show “Department of the Treasury” on their outgoing mail?
Answer: No. It is obvious that such deceptive nomenclature is intended to convey the false impression that IRS is a lawful bureau or department within the U.S. Department of the Treasury
. Federal laws prohibit the use of United States Mail for fraudulent purposes. Every piece of U.S. Mail sent from IRS with “Department of the Treasury” in the return address, is one count of mail fraud
. See also 31 U.S.C. 333
5. Does the U.S. Department of Justice have power of attorney to represent the IRS in
Answer: No. Although the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) does have power of attorney
to represent federal agencies before federal courts, the IRS is not an “agency” as that term is legally defined in the Freedom of Information Act
or in the Administrative Procedures Act
. The governments of all federal Territories are expressly ex
cluded from the definition of federal “agency” by Act of Congress. See 5 U.S.C. 551
Since IRS is domiciled in Puerto Rico
(RICO?), it is thereby ex
cluded from the definition of federal agencies which can be represented by the DOJ. The IRS Chief Counsel, appointed by the President under authority of 31 U.S.C. 301
(f)(2), can appear, or appoint a delegate to appear in federal court on behalf of IRS and IRS employees. Again, see the Answer to Question 1
above. As far as powers of attorney are concerned, the chain of command begins with Congress, flows to the President, and then to the IRS Chief Counsel, and NOT to the U.S. Department of Justice.
6. Were the so-called 14th
amendments properly ratified?
Answer: No. Neither was properly ratified. In the case of People v. Boxer
), docket number #S-030016, U.S. Senator Barbara Boxer fell totally silent in the face of an Application
to the California Supreme Court by the People of California, for an ORDER compelling Senator Boxer to witness the material evidence against the so-called 16th
That so‑called “amendment” allegedly authorized federal income taxation, even though it contains no provision expressly repealing two Constitutional Clauses mandating that direct taxes must
be apportioned. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court have both ruled
that repeals by implication are not favored. See Crawford Fitting Co. et al. v. J.T. Gibbons, Inc.
, 482 U.S. 437, 442 (1987
The material evidence in question was summarized in AFFIDAVITs that were properly executed and filed in that case. Boxer fell totally silent, thus rendering those affidavits the “truth of the case.” The so‑called 16th amendment
has now been correctly identified as a major fraud
upon the American People and the United States. Major fraud against the United States is a serious federal offense. See 18 U.S.C. 1031
Similarly, the so-called 14th amendment
was never properly ratified either. In the case of Dyett v. Turner
, 439 P.2d 266, 270 (1968
), the Utah Supreme Court recited numerous historical facts proving, beyond any
shadow of a doubt, that the so‑called 14th amendment
was likewise a major fraud upon the American People.
Those facts, in many cases, were Acts of the several State Legislatures voting for or against that proposal to amend the U.S. Constitution
. The Supreme Law Library
has a collection
of references detailing this major fraud.
The U.S. Constitution requires that constitutional amendments be ratified by three-fourths
of the several States. As such, their Acts are governed by the Full Faith and Credit Clause
in the U.S. Constitution. See Article IV, Section 1
Judging by the sheer amount of litigation its various sections have generated, particularly Section 1, the so‑called 14th amendment
is one of the worst
pieces of legislation ever written in American history. The phrase “subject to the jurisdiction of the United States” is properly understood to mean “subject to the municipal
jurisdiction of Congress.” (See Answer to Question 19
For this one reason alone, the Congressional Resolution proposing the so-called 14th amendment is provably vague and therefore unconstitutional. See 14 Stat. 358-359, Joint Resolution No. 48, June 16, 1866.
7. Where are the statutes that create a specific liability for federal income taxes?
Answer: Section 1
of the Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”) contains no provisions creating a specific liability for taxes imposed by subtitle A
. Aside from the statutes which apply only
to federal government employees, pursuant to the Public Salary Tax Act, the only other
statutes that create a specific liability for federal income taxes are those itemized in the definition of “Withholding agent” at IRC section 7701
(a)(16). For example, see IRC section 1461
. A separate liability statute for “employment” taxes imposed by subtitle C
is found at IRC section 3403
After a worker authorizes a payroll officer to withhold taxes, typically by completing Form W‑4, the payroll officer then becomes a withholding agent who is legally and specifically liable
for payment of all taxes withheld from that worker’s paycheck. Until such time as those taxes are paid in full into the Treasury of the United States
, the withholding agent is the only party who is legally liable
for those taxes, not
the worker. See IRC section 7809
(“Treasury of the United States”).
If the worker opts instead to complete a Withholding Exemption Certificate, consistent with IRC section 3402
(n), the payroll officer is not thereby authorized to withhold any federal income taxes. In this latter situation, there is absolutely no liability for the worker or
for the payroll officer; in other words, there is no liability PERIOD, specifically because there is no withholding agent.
8. Can a federal regulation create a specific liability, when no specific liability is created by the corresponding statute?
Answer: No. The U.S. Constitution vests all
legislative power in the Congress of the United States. See Article I, Section 1
. The Executive Branch of the federal government has no legislative power whatsoever. This means that agencies of the Executive Branch, and also the federal Courts in the Judicial Branch, are prohibited
from making law.
If an Act of Congress fails to create a specific liability for any tax imposed by that Act, then there is no liability for that tax. Executive agencies have no authority to cure any such omission by using regulations to create a liability.
“[A]n administrative agency may not create
a criminal offense or any liability not sanctioned by the lawmaking authority, especially a liability for a tax
or inspection fee.” See Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Acker
, 361 U.S. 87, 4 L.Ed.2d 127, 80 S.Ct. 144 (1959
), and Independent Petroleum Corp. v. Fly
, 141 F.2d 189 (5th Cir. 1944) as cited at 2 Am Jur 2d
, p. 129, footnote 2 (1962 edition) [bold
emphasis added]. However, this cite from American Jurisprudence
has been removed
from the 1994 edition of that legal encyclopedia.
9. The federal regulations create an income tax liability for what specific classes of people?
Answer: The regulations at 26 CFR 1.1-1 attempted to create a specific liability for all “citizens of the United States” and all “residents of the United States”. However, those regulations correspond to IRC section 1
, which does not
create a specific liability for taxes imposed by subtitle A
Therefore, these regulations are an overly broad extension of the underlying statutory authority; as such, they are unconstitutional, null and void ab initio
(from the beginning, in Latin). The Acker
case cited above held that federal regulations can not
exceed the underlying statutory authority. (See Answer to Question 8
10. How many classes of citizens are there, and how did this number come to be?
Answer: There are two (2) classes of citizens: State Citizens and federal citizens. The first class originates in the Qualifications Clauses
in the U.S. Constitution, where the term “Citizen of the United States” is used. (See 1:2:2
.) Notice the UPPER-CASE “C” in “C
The pertinent court cases have defined the term “United States” in these Clauses to mean “States United”, and the full term means “Citizen of ONE OF
the States United”. See People v. De La Guerra
, 40 Cal. 311, 337 (1870); Judge Pablo De La Guerra signed the California Constitution of 1849, when California first joined the Union. Similar terms are found in the Diversity Clause at Article III, Section 2, Clause 1
, and in the Privileges and Immunities Clause at Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1
. Prior to the Civil War, there was only one (1) class of Citizens under American Law. See the holding in Pannill v. Roanoke
, 252 F. 910, 914‑915 (1918), for definitive authority on this key point.
The second class originates in the 1866 Civil Rights Act
, where the term “citizen of the United States” is used. This Act was later codified at 42 U.S.C. 1983
. Notice the lower-case “c” in “citizen”. The pertinent court cases have held that Congress thereby created a municipal franchise
primarily for members of the Negro race, who were freed by President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation (a war measure), and later by the Thirteenth Amendment
banning slavery and involuntary servitude. Compelling payment of a “tax” for which there is no liability statute is tantamount to involuntary servitude, and extortion.
Instead of using the unique term “federal citizen”, as found in Black’s Law Dictionary
, Sixth Edition, it is now clear that the Radical Republicans who sponsored the 1866 Civil Rights Act
were attempting to confuse
these two classes of citizens. Then, they attempted to elevate this second class to constitutional status, by proposing a 14th amendment
to the U.S. Constitution. As we now know, that proposal was never ratified. (See Answer to Question 6
Numerous court cases have struggled to clarify the important differences between the two classes
. One of the most definitive, and dispositive cases, is Pannill v. Roanoke
, 252 F. 910, 914‑915 (1918), which clearly held that federal citizens had no standing to sue under the Diversity Clause
, because they were not even contemplated
when Article III in the U.S. Constitution was first being drafted, circa 1787 A.D.
Another is Ex parte Knowles
, 5 Cal. 300 (1855) in which the California Supreme Court ruled that there was no such thing as a “citizen of the United States” (as of the year 1855 A.D.
). Only federal citizens have standing to invoke 42 U.S.C. 1983
; whereas State Citizens do not. See Wadleigh v. Newhall
, 136 F. 941 (C.C. Cal. 1905).
Many more cases can be cited to confirm the existence of two classes of citizens under American Law. These cases are thoroughly documented in the book entitled “The Federal Zone: Cracking the Code of Internal Revenue
” by Paul Andrew Mitchell, B.A., M.S., now in its eleventh edition. See also the pleadings in the case of USA v. Gilbertson
, also in the Supreme Law Library
11. Can one be a State Citizen, without also
being a federal citizen?
Answer: Yes. The 1866 Civil Rights Act
was municipal law
, confined to the District of Columbia and other limited areas where Congress is the “state” government with exclusive legislative jurisdiction there. These areas are now identified as “the federal zone.” (Think of it as the blue field on the American flag; the stars on the flag are the 50 States.) As such, the 1866 Civil Rights Act
had no effect whatsoever upon the lawful status of State Citizens, then or now.
Several courts have already recognized our Right to be State Citizens without also becoming federal citizens. For excellent examples, see State v. Fowler
, 41 La. Ann. 380, 6 S. 602 (1889
) and Gardina v. Board of Registrars
, 160 Ala. 155, 48 S. 788, 791 (1909
). The Maine Supreme Court also clarified the issue by explaining our “Right of Election
” or “freedom of choice,” namely, our freedom to choose between two different forms of government. See 44 Maine 518 (1859
), Hathaway, J. dissenting.
Since the Guarantee Clause
does not require the federal government to guarantee a Republican Form of Government to the federal zone, Congress is free to create a different
form of government there, and so it has. In his dissenting opinion in Downes v. Bidwell
, 182 U.S. 244 at 380 (1901
), Supreme Court Justice Harlan called it an absolute legislative democracy.
But, State Citizens are under no legal obligation to join or pledge any allegiance to that legislative democracy; their allegiance is to one or more of the several States of the Union (i.e.the white stars on the American flag, not the blue field).
12. Who was Frank Brushaber, and why was his U.S. Supreme Court case so important?
Answer: Frank Brushaber was the Plaintiff in the case of Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Company
, 240 U.S. 1 (1916
), the first U.S. Supreme Court case to consider the so‑called 16thamendment
. Brushaber identified himself as a Citizen of New York State and a resident of the Borough of Brooklyn, in the city of New York, and nobody challenged that claim.
The Union Pacific Railroad Company was a federal corporation created by Act of Congress to build a railroad through Utah (from the Union to the Pacific), at a time when Utah was a federal Territory, i.e. inside the federal zone.
Brushaber’s attorney committed an error by arguing that the company had been chartered by the State of Utah, but Utah was not a State of the Union when Congress first created that corporation.
Brushaber had purchased stock issued by the company. He then sued the company to recover taxes that Congress had imposed upon the dividends paid to its stockholders. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled against Frank Brushaber, and upheld the tax as a lawful excise, or indirect tax.
The most interesting result of the Court’s ruling was a Treasury Decision (“T.D.”) that the U.S. Department of the Treasury later issued as a direct consequence of the high Court’s opinion. In T.D. 2313
, the U.S. Treasury Department expressly cited the Brushaber
decision, and it identified Frank Brushaber as a “nonresident alien” and the Union Pacific Railroad Company as a “domestic corporation”. This Treasury Decision has never been modified or repealed.
is crucial evidence proving that the income tax provisions of the IRC are municipal law
, with no territorial jurisdiction inside the 50 States of the Union. The U.S. Secretary of the Treasury who approved T.D. 2313
had no authority to extend the holding in the Brushaber
case to anyone or anything not a proper Party to that court action.
Thus, there is no escaping the conclusion that Frank Brushaber was the nonresident alien to which that Treasury Decision refers. Accordingly, all State Citizens are nonresident aliens with respect to the municipal jurisdiction of Congress, i.e. the federal zone.
13. What is a “Withholding agent”?
Answer: (See Answer to Question 7
first.) The term “Withholding agent” is legally defined at IRC section 7701
(a)(16). It is further defined by the statutes itemized in that section, e.g. IRC 1461
where liability for funds withheld is clearly assigned. In plain English, a “withholding agent” is a person who is responsible for withholding taxes from a worker’s paycheck, and then paying those taxes into the Treasury of the United States, typically on a quarterly basis. See IRC section 7809
One cannot become a withholding agent unless workers first authorize taxes to be withheld from their paychecks. This authorization is typically done when workers opt to execute a valid W‑4 “Employee’s Withholding Allowance Certificate.” In plain English, by signing a W‑4 workers designate themselves as “employees” and certify they are allowing withholding to occur.
If workers do not execute a valid W‑4 form, a company’s payroll officer is not authorized to withhold any federal income taxes from their paychecks. In other words, the payroll officer does not have “permission” or “power of attorney” to withhold taxes, until and unless workers authorize or “allow” that withholding ‑‑ by signing Form W‑4 knowingly, intentionally and voluntarily.
Pay particular attention to the term “Employee” in the title of this form. A properly executed Form W‑4 creates the presumption that the workers wish to be treated as if they were “employees” of the federal government. Obviously, for people who do not work for the federal government, such a presumption is a legal fiction, at best.
14. What is a “Withholding Exemption Certificate”?
Answer: A “Withholding Exemption Certificate” is an alternative to Form W‑4, authorized by IRC section 3402
(n) and executed in lieu of
Form W‑4. Although section 3402
(n) does authorize this Certificate, the IRS has never added a corresponding form to its forms catalog (see the IRS “Printed Products Catalog”).
In the absence of an official IRS form, workers can use the language
of section 3402
(n) to create their own Certificates. In simple language, the worker certifies that s/he had no federal income tax liability last year, and anticipates no federal income tax liability during the current calendar year. Because there are no liability statutes for workers in the private sector, this certification is easy to justify.
Many public and private institutions have created their own form for the Withholding Exemption Certificate, e.g.
California Franchise Tax Board, and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. This fact can be confirmed by using any search engine, e.g. google.com
, to locate occurrences of the term “withholding exemption certificate” on the Internet. This term occurs several times in IRC section 3402
15. What is “tax evasion” and who might be guilty of this crime?
Answer: “Tax evasion
” is the crime of evading a lawful tax. In the context of federal income taxes, this crime can only be committed by persons who have a legal liability
to pay, i.e.
the withholding agent. If one is not employed by the federal government, one is not subject to the Public Salary Tax Act unless one chooses to be treated “as if” one is a federal government “employee.” This is typically done by executing a valid Form W‑4.
However, as discussed above, Form W‑4 is not mandatory for workers who are not “employed” by the federal government. Corporations chartered by the 50 States of the Union are technically “foreign
” corporations with respect to the IRC; they are decidedly not the federal government, and should not be regarded “as if” they are the federal government, particularly when they were never created by any Act of Congress.
Moreover, the Indiana Supreme Court has ruled that Congress can only
create a corporation in its capacity as the Legislature for the federal zone. Such corporations are the only “domestic
” corporations under the pertinent federal laws. This writer’s essay entitled “A Cogent Summary of Federal Jurisdictions
” clarifies this important distinction between “foreign” and “domestic” corporations in simple, straightforward language.
If Congress were authorized to create national
corporations, such a questionable authority would invade States’ rights reserved to them by the Tenth Amendment, namely, the right to charter their own domestic corporations. The repeal of Prohibition
left the Tenth Amendment
unqualified. See the Constantine
For purposes of the IRC, the term “employer” refers only to federal government agencies, and an “employee” is a person who works for such an “employer”.
16. Why does IRS Form 1040 not require a Notary Public to notarize a taxpayer’s signature?
Answer: This question is one of the fastest ways to unravel the fraudulent nature of federal income taxes. At 28 U.S.C. section 1746
, Congress authorized written verifications to be executed under penalty of perjury without
the need for a Notary Public, i.e.
to witness one’s signature.
This statute identifies two different formats for such written verifications: (1) those executed outside the “United States” and (2) those executed inside the “United States”. These two formats correspond to sections 1746(1) and 1746(2), respectively.
What is extremely revealing in this statute is the format for verifications executed “outside the United States”. In this latter format, the statute adds the qualifying phrase “under the laws of the United States of America”.
Clearly, the terms “United States
” and “United States of America
” are both
used in this same statute. They are not
one and the same. The former refers to the federal government — in the U.S. Constitution
and throughout most federal statutes. The latter refers to the 50 States that are united by, and under, the U.S. Constitution. 28 U.S.C. 1746
is the only
federal statute in all of Title 28
of the United States Code that utilizes the term “United States of America”, as such.
It is painfully if not immediately obvious, then, that verifications made under penalty of perjury are outside the “United States” (read “the federal zone”) if and when they are executed inside the 50 States of the Union (read “the State zone”).
Likewise, verifications made under penalty of perjury are outside the 50 States of the Union, if and when they are executed inside the “United States”.
The format for signatures on Form 1040 is the one for verifications made inside the United States (federal zone) and outside the United States of America (State zone).
17. Does the term “United States” have multiple legal meanings and, if so, what are they?
Answer: Yes. The term has several meanings. The term “United States
” may be used in any one of several senses.  It may be merely the name of a sovereign occupying the position analogous to that of other sovereigns in the family of nations.  It may designate the territory over which the sovereignty of the United States extends
, or 
it may be the collective name of the States which are united by and under the Constitution. See Hooven & Allison Co. v. Evatt
, 324 U.S. 652 (1945
emphasis, brackets and numbers added for clarity].
This is the very same definition that is found in Black’s Law Dictionary
, Sixth Edition. The second of these three meanings refers to the federal zone and to Congress only
when it is legislating in its municipal
capacity. For example, Congress is legislating in its municipal capacity whenever it creates a federal corporation, like the United States Postal Service
It is terribly revealing of the manifold frauds discussed in these Answers, that the definition of “United States” has now been removed from the Seventh Edition of Black’s Law Dictionary.
18. Is the term “income” defined in the IRC and, if not, where is it defined?
Answer: The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals has already ruled that the term “income” is not defined anywhere
in the IRC: “The general term ‘income’ is not defined in the Internal Revenue Code.” U.S. v. Ballard
, 535 F.2d 400, 404 (8th Circuit, 1976
Moreover, in Mark Eisner v. Myrtle H. Macomber
, 252 U.S. 189 (1920
), the high Court told Congress it could not legislate any definition of “income” because that term was believed to be in the U.S. Constitution. The Eisner
case was predicated on the ratification of the 16th amendment
, which would have introduced the term “income” into the U.S. Constitution
for the very first time (but only
if that amendment had been properly ratified).
In Merchant’s Loan & Trust Co. v. Smietanka
, 255 U.S. 509 (1921
), the high Court defined “income” to mean the profit or gain derived from corporate activities. In that instance, the tax is a lawful excise tax imposed upon the corporate privilege of limited liability, i.e.
the liabilities of a corporation do not reach its officers, employees, directors or stockholders.
19. What is municipal law, and are the IRC’s income tax provisions municipal law, or not?
Answer: Yes. The IRC’s income tax provisions are municipal law. Municipal law
is law that is enacted to govern the internal
affairs of a sovereign State; in legal circles, it is also known as Private International Law. Under American Law, it has a much wider
meaning than the ordinances enacted by the governing body of a municipality, i.e.
city council or county board of supervisors. In fact, American legal encyclopedias define “municipal” to mean “internal”, and for this reason alone, the Internal
Revenue Code is really a Municipal
A mountain of additional evidence has now been assembled and published in the book “The Federal Zone
” to prove that the IRC’s income tax provisions are municipal
One of the most famous pieces of evidence is a letter
from a Connecticut Congresswoman, summarizing the advice of legal experts employed by the Congressional Research Service and the Legislative Counsel. Their advice confirmed that the meaning of “State” at IRC section 3121
(e) is restricted
to the named territories and possessions of D.C., Guam, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and Puerto Rico.
In other words, the term “State” in that statute, and in all similar federal statutes, includes ONLY the places expressly named, and no more.
20. What does it mean if my State is not mentioned in any of the federal income tax statutes?
The general rule is that federal government powers must be expressed and
enumerated. For example, the U.S. Constitution
is a grant of enumerated
powers. If a power is not enumerated in the U.S. Constitution, then Congress does not have any
authority to exercise that power. This rule is tersely expressed in the Ninth Amendment
, in the Bill of Rights
If California is not mentioned in any of the federal income tax statutes, then those statutes have no force or effect within that State. This is also true of all 50 States.
Strictly speaking, the omission or exclusion of anyone or any thing from a federal statute can be used to infer that the omission or exclusion was intentional by Congress. In Latin, this is tersely stated as follows: Inclusio unius est exclusio alterius. In English, this phrase is literally translated: Inclusion of one thing is the exclusion of all other things [that are not mentioned]. This phrase can be found in any edition of Black’s Law Dictionary; it is a maxim of statutory construction.
The many different
definitions of the term “State” that are found in federal laws are intentionally written to appear as if
they include the 50 States PLUS the other places mentioned. As the legal experts
in Congress have now confirmed, this is NOT
the correct way to interpret, or to construct, these statutes.
If a place is not mentioned, every American may correctly infer that the omission of that place from a federal statute was an intentional
act of Congress. Whenever it wants to do so, Congress knows how to define the term “United States” to mean the 50 States of the Union. See IRC section 4612
21. In what other ways is the IRC deliberately vague, and what are the real implications for the average American?
There are numerous other ways in which the IRC
is deliberately vague. The absence of any
legal definition for the term “income” is a classic deception. The IRS enforces the Code as a tax on everything that “comes in,” but nothing could be further from the truth. “Income” is decidedly NOT everything that “comes in.”
More importantly, the fact that this vagueness is deliberate
is sufficient grounds for concluding that the entire Code is null, void and unconstitutional, for violating our fundamental Right to know the nature and cause of any accusation, as guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment
in the Bill of Rights
Whether the vagueness is deliberate or not, any statute is unconstitutionally void if it is vague. If a statute is void for vagueness, the situation is the same as if it had never been enacted at all, and for this reason it can be ignored entirely.
22. Has Title 26
of the United States Code (“U.S.C.”) ever
been enacted into positive law, and what are the legal implications if Title 26 has not
been enacted into positive law?
Answer: No. Another, less obvious case of deliberate deception is the statute at IRC section 7851
(a)(6)(A), where it states that the provisions of subtitle F
shall take effect on the day after
the date of enactment of “this title”. Because the term “this title” is not defined anywhere
in 26 U.S.C., least of all in the section dedicated to definitions, one is forced to look elsewhere for its meaning, or to derive its meaning from context.
Throughout Title 28
of the United States Code — the laws which govern all the federal courts — the term “this title” clearly refers to Title 28. This fact would tend to support a conclusion that “this title”, as that term is used in the IRC, refers to Title 26 of the United States Code. However, Title 26
has never been enacted into positive law, as such.
Even though all federal judges may know the secret meaning of “this title”, they are men and women of UN
common intelligence. The U.S. Supreme Court’s test for vagueness is violated whenever men and women of common
intelligence must necessarily guess
at the meaning and differ
as to the application of a vague statute. See Connally et al. v. General Construction Co.
, 269 U.S. 385, 391 (1926
). Thus, federal judges are applying the wrong test for vagueness.
Accordingly, the provisions of subtitle F
have never taken effect. (“F” is for enF
orcement!) This subtitle contains all
of the enforcement statutes of the IRC
filing requirements, penalties for failure to file and tax evasion, grants of court jurisdiction over liens, levies and seizures, summons enforcement and so on.
In other words, the IRC
is a big pile of Code without any teeth; as such, it can impose no legal obligations upon anyone, not even people with dentures!
23. What federal courts are authorized to prosecute income tax crimes?
This question must be addressed in view of the Answer to Question 22
above. Although it may appear
that certain statutes in the IRC
grant original jurisdiction to federal district courts, to institute prosecutions of income tax crimes, none of the statutes found in subtitle F
has ever taken effect. For this reason, those statutes do not authorize the federal courts to do anything
at all. As always, appearances can be very deceiving. Remember the Wizard of Oz
or the mad tea party of Alice in Wonderland
On the other hand, the federal criminal Code at Title 18
, U.S.C., does grant general authority to the District Courts of the United States (“DCUS
”) to prosecute violations of the statutes found in that Code. See 18 U.S.C. 3231
It is very important to appreciate the fact that these courts are not the same as the United States District Courts (“USDC
”). The DCUS are constitutional
courts that originate in Article III
of the U.S. Constitution. The USDC
are territorial tribunals, or legislative
courts, that originate in Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2
of the U.S. Constitution, also known as the Territory Clause.
This author’s OPENING BRIEF
to the Eighth Circuit on behalf of the Defendant in USA v. Gilbertson
cites numerous court cases that have already clarified the all important distinction between these two classes of federal district courts. For example, in Balzac v. Porto Rico
, 258 U.S. 298 at 312 (1922
), the high Court held that the USDC belongs in the federal Territories. This author’s OPENING BRIEF
to the Ninth Circuit in Mitchell v. AOL Time Warner, Inc. et al.
develops this theme in even greater detail; begin reading at section “7(e)”.
, as such, appear to lack any
lawful authorities to prosecute income tax crimes. The USDC are legislative
tribunals where summary proceedings
For example, under the federal statute at 28 U.S.C. 1292
, the U.S. Courts of Appeal have no appellate jurisdiction to review interlocutory orders issued by the USDC. Further details on this point are available in the Press Release
entitled “Private Attorney General Cracks Title 28 of the United States Code
” and dated November 26, 2001 A.D.
24. Are federal judges required to pay income taxes on their pay, and what are the real implications if they do pay taxes on their pay?
Answer: No. Federal judges who are appointed to preside on the District Courts of the United States –- the Article III constitutional
courts –- are immune
from any taxation of their pay, by constitutional mandate.
The fact that all federal judges are currently paying taxes on their pay is proof of undue influence by the IRS, posing as a duly authorized agency of the Executive Branch. See Evans v. Gore
, 253 U.S. 245 (1920
the IRS were a lawful bureau or department within the U.S. Department of the Treasury
(which they are NOT), the existence of undue influence by the Executive Branch would violate the fundamental principle of Separation of Powers. This principle, in theory, keeps the 3 branches of the federal government confined to their respective areas, and prevents any one branch from usurping the lawful powers that rightly belong to the other two branches.
The Separation of Powers principle is succinctly defined in Williams v. United States
, 289 U.S. 553 (1933
); however, in that decision the Supreme Court erred by defining “Party” to mean only Plaintiffs in Article III
, contrary to the definition of “Party
” that is found in Bouvier’s Law Dictionary
The federal judiciary, contemplated by the organic U.S. Constitution
, was intended to be independent and unbiased. These two qualities are the essence, or sine qua non
of judicial power, i.e.
without which there is nothing. Undue influence obviously violates these two qualities. See Evans v. Gore supra
In Lord v. Kelley, 240 F. Supp. 167, 169 (1965), the federal judge in that case was honest enough to admit, in his published opinion, that federal judges routinely rule in favor of the IRS, because they fear the retaliation that might result from ruling against the IRS. There you have it, from the horse’s mouth!
In front of a class of law students at the University of Arizona in January of 1997, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist openly admitted that all
federal judges are currently paying taxes on their judicial pay. This writer was an eyewitness to that statement
by the Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court -– the highest Court in the land.
Thus, all federal judges are now material witnesses to the practice of concealing the Withholding Exemption Certificate from them, when they were first hired as “employees” of the federal judiciary. As material witnesses, they are thereby disqualified from presiding on all federal income tax cases.
25. Can federal grand juries issue valid indictments against illegal tax protesters?
Answer: No. Federal grand juries cannot issue valid indictments against illegal tax protesters. Protest has never
been illegal in America, because the First Amendment
guarantees our fundamental Right to express our objections to any government actions, in written and in spoken words.
Strictly speaking, the term “illegal” cannot modify the noun “protesters” because to do so would constitute a violation of the First Amendment
in the Bill of Rights, one of the most magnificent constitutional provisions ever written.
Accordingly, for the term “illegal tax protester” to survive this obvious constitutional challenge, the term “illegal” must modify the noun “tax”. An illegal tax protester is, therefore, someone who is protesting an illegal tax. Such an act of protest is protected by the First Amendment
, and cannot be a crime.
Protest is also recognized and honored by the Uniform Commercial Code
; the phrases “under protest” and “without prejudice” are sufficient to reserve all
of one’s fundamental Rights at law. See U.C.C. 1-308
(UCCA 1308 in California).
By the way, the federal U.C.C. is also municipal law
. See the Answer to Question 19
above, and 77 Stat. 630, P.L. 88‑243, December 30, 1963 (one month after President John F. Kennedy was murdered).
26. Do IRS agents ever tamper with federal grand juries, and how is this routinely done?
Answer: Yes. IRS agents routinely tamper with federal grand juries, most often by misrepresenting themselves, under oath
, as lawful employees and “Special Agents” of the federal government, and by misrepresenting the provisions of subtitle F
as having any
legal force or effect. Such false representations of fact violate Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, uncodified at 15 U.S.C. 1125
(a). (Title 15
of the United States Code has not been enacted into positive law either.)
They tamper with grand juries by acting as if “income” is everything that “comes in”, when there is no such definition anywhere
in the IRC. Such false descriptions of fact also violate Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act
They tamper with grand juries by presenting documentary evidence which they had no authority to acquire, in the first instance, such as bank records. Bank signature cards do not constitute competent waivers of their customers’ fundamental Rights to privacy, as secured by the Fourth Amendment
. The high standard for waivers of fundamental Rights was established by the U.S. Supreme Court in Brady v. U.S.
, 397 U.S. 742, 748 (1970
IRS agents tamper with grand juries by creating and
maintaining the false and fraudulent pretenses that the IRC
is not vague, or that the income tax provisions have any legal force or effect inside the 50 States of the Union, when those provisions do not
These are all forms of perjury, as well, and possibly also misprision of perjury by omission, i.e. serious federal offenses.
Finally, there is ample evidence that IRS agents bribe U.S. Attorneys, federal judges, and even the Office of the President with huge kickbacks
, every time a criminal indictment is issued by a federal grand jury against an illegal tax protester. (See the Answer to Question 25
above.) These kick‑backs range from $25,000 to $35,000 in CASH! They also violate the Anti-Kickback Act of 1986
, which penalizes the payment of kickbacks from federal government subcontractors. See 41 U.S.C. 8701 et seq.
As a trust domiciled in Puerto Rico
, the IRS is, without a doubt, a federal government subcontractor that is subject to this Act. See 31 U.S.C. 1321
(a)(62). The systematic and premeditated pattern of racketeering by IRS employees also establishes probable cause to dismantle the IRS permanently for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act
, first enacted in the year 1890 A.D.
See 26 Stat. 209 (1890) (uncodified at 15 U.S.C. 1 et seq.
27. What is “The Kickback Racket,” and where can I find evidence of its existence?
The evidence of this “kickback racket
” was first discovered in a table of delegation orders, on a page within the Internal Revenue Manual (“IRM”) — the internal policy and procedure manual for all IRS employees.
Subsequently, this writer submitted a lawful request
, under the Freedom of Information Act
, for a certified list of all payments that had ever been made under color of these delegation orders in the IRM. Mr. Mark L. Zolton, a tax law specialist within the Internal Revenue Service, responded
on IRS letterhead, transmitted via U.S. Mail, that few records existed for these “awards” because most of them were paid in cash
When this evidence was properly presented to a federal judge, who had been asked to enforce a federal grand jury subpoena against a small business in Arizona, he ended up obstructing all 28 pieces of U.S. Mail we had transmitted to that grand jury.
Obstruction of correspondence is a serious federal offense, and federal judges have no authority whatsoever
to intercept U.S. Mail. See 18 U.S.C. 1702
Obviously, the federal judge — John M. Roll
— did NOT want the grand jury in that case to know anything
about these kickbacks. They found out anyway, because of the manner
in which this writer defended that small business, as its Vice President for Legal Affairs.
28. Can the IRS levy bank accounts without a valid court order?
Answer: No. The Fifth Amendment
deprivations of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Due Process of Law
is another honored and well developed feature of American constitutional practice. Put simply, it requires Notice and Hearing before any
property can be seized by any federal government employees, agents, departments or agencies.
A levy against a bank account is a forced seizure of property, i.e. the funds on deposit in that account. No such seizure can occur unless due process of law has first run its course. This means notice, hearing, and deliberate adjudication of all the pertinent issues of law and fact.
this process has run its proper or “due” course, can a valid court order be issued. The holding in U.S. v. O’Dell
, 160 F.2d 304 (6th Cir. 1947
), makes it very clear that the IRS can only levy a bank account after first obtaining a Warrant of Distraint, or court ORDER. And, of course, no court ORDER could ever be obtained unless all affected Parties had first enjoyed their “day in court.”
29. Do federal income tax revenues pay for any government services and, if so, which government services are funded by federal income taxes?
Answer: No. The money trail is very difficult to follow, in this instance, because the IRS is technically a trust
with a domicile in Puerto Rico
. See 31 U.S.C. 1321
(a)(62). As such, their records are protected by laws which guarantee the privacy of trust records within that territorial jurisdiction, provided that the trust is not also violating the Sherman Antitrust Act
They are technically not an “agency” of the federal government, as that term is defined in the Freedom of Information Act
and in the Administrative Procedures Act
. The governments of the federal territories are expressly ex
cluded from the definition of “agency” in those Acts of Congress. See 5 U.S.C. 551
(1)(C). (See also the Answer to Question 5
All evidence indicates that they are a money laundry, extortion racket, and conspiracy to engage in a pattern of racketeering activity, in violation of 18 U.S.C. 1951
and 1961 et seq.
They appear to be laundering huge sums of money into foreign banks, mostly in Europe, and quite possibly into the Vatican. See the national policy on money laundering at 31 U.S.C. 5341
The final report of the Grace Commission, convened under President Ronald Reagan, quietly admitted that none of the funds they collect from federal income taxes goes to pay for any federal government services. The Grace Commission found that those funds were being used to pay for interest on the federal debt, and income transfer payments to beneficiaries of entitlement programs like federal pension plans.
30. How can the Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA
”) help me to answer other
key tax questions?
The availability of correct information about federal government operations is fundamental to maintaining the freedom of the American People. The Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA
”), at 5 U.S.C.552 et seq.
, was intended to make government documents available with a minimal amount of effort by the People.
As long as a document is not protected by one of the reasonable exemptions itemized in the FOIA
, a requester need only submit a brief letter to the agency having custody of the requested document(s). If the requested document is not produced within 20 working days (excluding weekends and federal holidays), the requester need only prepare a single appeal letter.
If the requested document is not produced within another 20 working days after the date of the appeal letter, the requester is automatically allowed to petition a District Court of the United States (Article III DCUS
the Article IV USDC
) — to compel
production of the requested document, and judicially to enjoin
the improper withholding of same. See 5 U.S.C. 552
(a)(4)(B). The general rule is that statutes conferring original jurisdiction on federal district courts must be strictly
This writer has pioneered the application of the FOIA
to request certified copies of statutes and regulations which should exist, but do not
exist. A typical request anyone can make, to which the U.S. Treasury has now fallen totally silent, is for a certified copy of all statutes which create a specific liability for taxes imposed by subtitle A of the IRC
. For example, see the FOIA request
that this writer prepared for author Lynne Meredith.
Of course, by now we already know the answer to this question, before asking it. (Good lawyers always know the answers to their questions, before asking them.)
It should also be clear that such a FOIA request should not
be directed to the IRS, because they are not an “agency” as that term is defined at 5 U.S.C. 551
(1)(C). Address it instead to the Disclosure Officer, Disclosure Services, Room 1054-MT, U.S. Department of the Treasury, Washington 20220, District of Columbia, USA. This is the format for “foreign” addresses, as explained in USPS Publication #221
As James Madison once wrote, “A popular government without popular information or the means of acquiring it, is but a Prologue to a Farce or a Tragedy or perhaps both. Knowledge will forever govern ignorance, and a people who mean to be their own Governors, must arm themselves with the power knowledge gives.”
31. Where can I find more information, and still protect my privacy?
There are many civic organizations throughout America who have dedicated their precious time and energy to acquire and disseminate widely these documented truths about the Internal Revenue Service and the Internal Revenue Code
The Internet’s World Wide Web (“www”) is perhaps the best single source of information (and disinformation) about the IRS, and the major problems now confirmed in the IRC and in the mountains of related policies, procedures, practices, customs, rules, regulations, forms and schedules.
Learn to become a sophisticated consumer of information, and the knowledge you seek will be yours to keep and share — with those you love and endeavor to free from this terrible plague that persists in America.
Good luck, and may God bless your earnest endeavors to ensure the blessings of Liberty for ourselves and our Posterity, as stated in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution
and in the Declaration of Independence.
Paul Andrew Mitchell: Constitution, Citizens, and the United States (OPR, Dec. 5, 2012)
The real intent of Congress became painfully obvious immediately after Congress proposed the 14th amendment. The language of that proposal clearly reveals the intent of Congress to recognize two distinct classes of citizens, the second of which was intended to operate as a franchise with the District of Columbia. – Paul Andrew Mitchell
Paul Andrew Mitchell provides the legal and historical groundwork to understand the meanings of two key terms: “United States” and “citizen”. The events surrounding the American Civil War, beginning with the Dred Scott Decison, began a series of moves by the U.S. Congress, which ultimately resulted in the creation of two United States, and two classes of citizens!
Today, we live by laws that continue to redefine and divide unwary Americans, who do not know who they are… or which laws apply to them. The Federal Zone, the municipal legislative district, is quite distinct from the legitimate constitutional government of “we, the people”.
In this nearly 3-hour live show, we get a massive education on the issues surrounding this complex set of issues, and discuss the continued usurpation of power, corruption, and racketeering by the illegal bosses who stole our American legacy of freedom. Listen close, and take notes.
Paul Andrew Mitchell is the founder of Supreme Law. Mitchell, an advanced systems development consultant for 35 years, has spent the past sixteen years since 1990 A.D. doing a detailed investigation of the United States Constitution, federal statute laws, and the important court cases.
Writing under several pen names, Mitchell’s work has reached all the way into the U.S. Supreme Court, which adopted “the federal zone” as a household term in their sweeping 1995 decision in U.S. v. Lopez.
His massive book entitled “The Federal Zone: Cracking the Code of Internal Revenue” was first published in 1992, and became an instant underground success for its lucid language and indisputable legal authority. The appendices are available, for free, right here.
Mitchell has litigated important cases in State and federal courts, including the case of People v. Boxer, which established that the so-called Sixteenth Amendment was a massive fraud upon the American People. U.S. Senator Barbara Boxer fell totally silent in the face of Mitchell’s pleadings in that case.
He has also worked as Vice President for Legal Affairs and Counsel to an Arizona Trust, in a major confrontation with the federal government over tax administration policy, and as Counsel to a trespass and piracy victim whose legal strategy has attracted nationwide attention on the Internet.
Randy Maugans interviews Paul Andrew Mitchell (Dec. 5, 2012)
Complete audio Part 1 Part 2
Let’s Dismantle IRS:
This Racket Is Busted
Paul Andrew Mitchell
Private Attorney General
All Rights Reserved without Prejudice
It’s time to dismantle the Internal Revenue Service. This organization has outlived its usefulness.
The hunt was on, several years ago, when activists like this writer confirmed that IRS was never created by any Act of Congress. It cannot be found in any of the laws which created the U.S. Department of the Treasury.
The U.S. Supreme Court quietly admitted as much, at footnote 23 in Chrysler Corp. v. Brown. In a nation governed by the rule of law, this omission is monumental.
The search for its real origins has taken this nation down many blind alleys, so convoluted and complicated are the statutes and regulations which govern its employees rarely, if ever.
The best explanation now favors its links to Prohibition, the ill-fated experiment in outlawing alcohol.
The Women’s Temperance Movement, we believe, was secretly underwritten by the petroleum cartel, to perfect a monopoly over automotive fuels. Once that monopoly was in place, Prohibition was repealed, leaving alcohol high and dry as the preferred fuel for cars and trucks, and leaving a federal police force inside the several States, to extort money from the American People.
All evidence indicates that IRS is an alias for the Federal Alcohol Administration (“FAA”), which was declared unconstitutional inside the several States by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1935. The result of the high Court’s decision in U.S. v. Constantine confined that FAA to federal territories, like Puerto Rico, where Congress is the “state” legislature.
Further confirmation can be found in a decision by the First Circuit Court of Appeals in Used Tire International, Inc. v. Manual Diaz-Saldana, which identified the latter as the real “Secretary of the Treasury.” The Code of Federal Regulations for Title 27 also identifies this other “Secretary” as an office in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
This is ominous data. It serves to suggest that IRS has no authority whatsoever to mail envelopes from the “Department of the Treasury.” Such obvious deception is prohibited by federal mail fraud statutes, and defined as a predicate to racketeering.
Moreover, the vagueness now proven to frequent the Internal Revenue Code forces a legal conclusion that the entire Code is necessarily void, read “no legal effect.” The high Court’s test for vagueness is obviously violated when men and women of common intelligence cannot agree on its correct meaning, its proper construction, or its territorial application.
Take, for instance, a statute at IRC section 7851. Here, Congress has said that all the enforcement provisions in subtitle F shall take effect on the day after the date “this title” is enacted. These provisions include, for example, filing requirements, penalties for failing to file, and tax evasion.
Title 26 has never been enacted into positive law, rendering every single section in subtitle F a big pile of spaghetti, with no teeth whatsoever. Throughout most federal laws, the consistent legislative practice is to use the term “this title” to refer to a Title of the United States Code.
To make matters worse, conscientious courts (an endangered species) have ruled that taxes cannot be imposed without statutes assigning a specific liability to certain parties.
There are no statutes creating a specific liability for taxes imposed by subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code. This is the set of statutes that impose the federal income tax.
Look at it this way: if Congress imposed a tax on chickens, would that necessarily mean that the chickens are liable for the tax?
Obviously not! Congress would also need to define the farmer, or the consumer, or the wholesaler, as the party liable for paying that tax. Chickens, where are your tax returns?
Without a liability statute, there can be no liability.
This now opens another, deeper layer in this can of rotting worms. If IRS is really using fear tactics to extort an unlawful debt, then it qualifies for careful scrutiny, and prosecution, under the RacketeerInfluenced and Corrupt Organizations Act aka “RICO”.
How fitting, and how ironic, that IRS is legally domiciled in Puerto RICO.
When we get down to brass tacks, we find that Congress encourages private Citizens to investigate and bust rackets, mainly because it perceived a shortage of public prosecutors talented enough to enforce RICO statutes against organized crime syndicates.
This shortage is the real reason why the RICO statute at 18 U.S.C. 1964 awards triple damages to any party who prevails, using the civil remedies it provides. And, happily, State courts like the Superior Court of California also enjoy original jurisdiction to litigate and issue these remedies.
All of this would approach comedy in the extreme, were it not also the case that IRS launders huge sums of money, every day, into foreign banks chiefly owned by the families that founded the Federal Reserve system.
Did you think the Federal Reserve was federal government? Guess again!
One of the biggest shocks of the last century was an admission by President Reagan’s Grace Commission, that none of the income taxes collected by IRS goes to pay for any federal government services.
Those taxes are paying interest to these foreign banks, and benefit payments to recipients of entitlement programs, like federal pension funds.
So, the next time your neighbors accuse you of being unpatriotic for challenging the IRS, we recommend that you demand from them proof that IRS is really funding any federal government services, like air traffic control, the Pentagon, the Congress, the Courts, or the White House.
Don’t hold your breath.
Honestly, when all the facts are put on a level table top, there is not a single reason why America should put up with this massive fiscal fraud for one more day.
It’s now time to dismantle the Internal Revenue Service.
Keeping all those laundered funds inside this country will result in economic prosperity without precedent in our nation’s history.
Let’s bury IRS beneath the Titanic, where it can rust in peace forever along with the rest of the planet’s jellyfish.
America deserves to be a living, thriving Republic, not another victim of Plank Number Two in the Communist Manifesto.
About the Author:
Paul Andrew Mitchell is a Private Attorney General and Webmaster of the Supreme Law Library on the Internet:
“U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Falls Silent
in Face of SUBPOENA for Tax Liability Statutes”
“31 Questions and Answers about the IRS”
“What Is the Federal Income Tax?”
“Electronic Censors Found at U.C. Berkeley’s Law School”
“Private Attorney General Backs UCB’s Graduate Instructors”
“Paul Mitchell Blasts Clinton, Rubin for Racketeering”
“Paul Mitchell Applauds House Vote to Kill IRC”
“Paul Mitchell Urges Nation to Boycott IRS”
“The Kick-Back Racket: PMRS”
“Congresswoman Suspected of Income Tax Evasion”
“Our Proposal to Save Social Security”
“Charitable Contributions by the Federal Reserve”
“Legal Notice in re Withholding Exemption Certificates”
“A Cogent Summary of Federal Jurisdictions”
“BATF/IRS — Criminal Fraud”
“Income Taxes and Government Fraud”
“A Monologue on Federal Fiscal Fraud”
“Miscellaneous Letters of Correspondence”